October 19, 2017

Why Would Anyone Protect and Perpetuate Mixed-Breed Wild Dogs in Our Forests?

Now that Roxanne Quimby got her land designated as a national monument, the push is now on to turn the rest of northwestern Maine into useless, inaccessible wasteland some like to call “wilderness.”

As part of this push for locking up land, comes the ignorant belief that wolves are a magic formula needed to carry out the false theory that “Nature” balances itself. Unfortunately we will never get rid of that lie because it became a very powerful tool when it was criminally used to introduce wolves into the Greater Yellowstone area, for personal and monetary gain. Even since the man who invented the false claim has rescinded his theory, the echo chambers of the media, along with environmental useful idiots, continue to perpetuate the fantasy because they want to and need to. It’s that simple.

However, aside from all of this banter about whether or not wolves walk on water and whether or not land should be locked up and called wilderness, there can be serious argument made that in the Lower 48 States, there does not exist a “pure” wolf or a coyote for that matter.

In an article found in the Bangor Daily News, it begins, “WSCH 6’s Bill Green reported this week that a new wolf-coyote hybrid “thrives” in Maine.”

If this is true, and there exists studies that tell us that the wild dogs found in most of the northeast section of country are of a mixed breed of wolf, coyote and domestic dog and any and all canine breeds and mixtures. One would imagine that that mixture is all over the place as, by now, cross-bred wild dogs have mated with other cross-bred wild dogs, and so it goes.

Do these wild dogs “thrive” in Maine, as Bill Green states? Reports vary, some stating that Maine has a “coyote” (hybrid) population in excess of 20,000. Thriving? It would seem that way to me, especially when you consider that it was only in my childhood days – 1960s – that rumors were spreading about “coyotes” showing up in places in the Pine Tree State. Maine never had a viable population of “coyotes” until it began to grow in the 1960s, due to expansion of populations – probably already some kind of add-mixture of wild dog.

Some claim this cross-breeding (media and others like to call the offspring a hybrid) is a natural phenomenon but is it?

Also found in this article is the following statement: “When Europeans began to colonize the United States, wolves were abundant throughout the country.” What does that mean precisely? What is the term “abundant” one’s weighted perception? It appears Bill Green and I “perceive” that a mixed-breed of wild dog “thrives” in Maine. Those who see any dog, wild or domestic, in vast quantities, as something that should be perpetuated, wouldn’t see 20,000 coyotes/cross-breeds as thriving or abundant. But, what about science….real science?

Most certain, the settlers who came before us, learned quickly that large predators in the woods were dangerous and competed with them for, not only their livestock, but for other wild game that was necessary for survival. And thus they killed these wild predators whenever they could. Shouldn’t they have?

But were these wolves “abundant” when the settlers arrived? Bearing in mind the term “abundant,” perhaps the best way to learn about this is to recall the historic accounts, often found in hunters’ and trappers’ journals, including such recordings as those of Lewis and Clark, and names such as Smith, Ogden, Sublette, Work, Meek, Freemont, Preuss, Simpson and Egan. After all, they were the ones on the land even before the settlers.

Most of their journals tell a quite different story of “abundance.” With the exception of some localized areas, west of the Mississippi, both game and wolves were scarce. Explorers, through what is now the Yellowstone Basin, comment that they never heard wolves or coyotes howl. There was little game to be found, and often these explorers, unable to find game to sustain themselves, resorted to killing and eating horse meat. Lewis and Clark experienced the same thing finding themselves trading with the Indians for their domestic dogs to eat in order to survive. From my perspective, that does not describe what I would call an abundance of anything, except perhaps hunger.

Science shows us that natural segregation, often achieved through natural landscape barriers, and population limits found in widespread outbreaks of disease, kept species like wild canines apart in order that cross-breeding was not a common thing. We have learned that the Native Americans knew about wolves and the trouble they caused. Not all Indians worshiped the wolf or found some kind of spiritual guidance or direction from them. The natives deliberately cross-bred certain domesticated dogs with wild dogs in hopes of creating a better hunting animal.

Teddy Roosevelt wrote extensively of his travels, often describing the different looks and sizes of wild dogs he encountered. Roosevelt was one of the first to write about the big “timber wolves” that seemed to exist only beyond the high mountains of what is now known as the Sasquatch Range. What coyotes there were, existed down on the plains.

Common sense should tell us that if we are interested in protecting a wolf or a coyote, we should be doing our best to insure that the two species are not forced into the same habitats where cross-breeding would become even more common, thus mixing the species and destroying the wolf or coyote genes. People, often in their greed and animal perversions, insist on seeing these animals from their cars and out the back windows of their houses. This is a great formula for the destruction of, not only wolves and coyotes, but many other species due to predation and disease.

Granted this effort of segregation becomes a more difficult task with a growing population of man, but protecting the populations of wild wolves and coyotes to numbers that are historically higher than when the settlers first arrived, thinking we are doing great things for the animals, is all wrong.

Even many who would concur that there are “hybrid” wild dogs living throughout Maine and other areas of the country, seem to only care about protecting whatever the cross-bred creature is that exists for the moment. Our own U.S. Government seems to share that same belief.

In attempts to perpetuate wild dogs in the Desert Southwest and in the Southeast, government agents knowingly and illegally introduced real hybrid semi-wild dogs. This is not only illegal but a violation of the Endangered Species Act. What are we doing?

If Maine and other regions are now dealing with “thriving” populations of hybrid wild dogs, there’s a reason for that. The worst thing we can do is perpetuate this cross-breed. If we want to protect the wolf and the coyote, we should be doing all we can to rid the landscape of these hybrid, invasive species. Not only do the genes of wild canines become mixed up, but what also changes with the cross-mixture is behavior – behavior that is most often unpredictable. This adds to the issue of public safety.

To argue that Maine should have wolves is one thing. To make the claim that what the Government and others who are suggesting introduction is actually a pure wolf is foolishness. Perhaps the only wolf that resembles a pure wolf exists in the wilderness regions far to our north, where they belong. These are not indigenous to Maine. Introduction of such a beast, or any kind of add-mixture, semi-wild dogs, calling them wolves, is a violation of the law and should not be tolerated…that is if we actually care about protecting real wolves.

*Note* – I provided few links in this writing. I have written extensively on this subject, including a book. You can use the search function of this website to find more information about most everything I have written in this article.

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Two Wolves and a Coyote Walk Into a Bar…..

One wolf says to the others, “Hey, howl you doing these days? Did you read that piece the other day about how farmers clearing land extirpated us wolves and paved the way for you coyotes to go to Maine and live?”

I wonder who makes this stuff up? Perhaps it’s just people like me who like to fabricate stories. Of course, not that many years ago readers would be smart enough to know that animals can’t talk, nor do they frequent bars. But things have changed. And so, I suspect some might read this and think it’s true.

It’s a bit like the guy who took his extremely intelligent dog with him duck hunting. He picked up his friend early in the morning and they went into their blind just before daylight. He wanted to surprise his friend and show him how smart his dog was.

The first opportunity, one man shoots a duck and it lands in the water. The dog owner ordered his dog to retrieve the duck. The dog got to the water’s edge and carefully tip-toed on top of the water and retrieved the duck. The other hunter observed but didn’t say one word.

This same event took place several times until finally the dog’s owner, frustrated, speaks up, “Dang it all Fred! Don’t you notice anything peculiar about my dog?”

Fred says, “Yeah, but I didn’t want to say anything and hurt your feelings, but that dog can’t swim!”

It is highly likely that the wild canine animal that Mainers see in the woods, is not a wolf, nor is it a coyote. Supposedly, scientific experiments have shown that this wild canine is some sort of a mixed breed of various offspring of canines, both wild and domestic. People like to call them hybrids, as though doing so somehow places these nasty mutts in an elevated status among animal perverts. The truth is, it’s a canine that is roaming in the woods of Maine and it is a vehement spreader of disease – at least 30 different viruses, parasites and diseases.

To my knowledge, there is no real historic data that supports the claim that settlers clearing forests extirpated the “wolf” that was found once in the Maine woods. After all, we know for a fact that the creation of farmland, contributed to the growth of the deer herd, which was a great food source for the wolf.

Others want to blame hunting, trapping and the general dislike of the wolf, that caused people to kill them every chance they had. This is only partly true. Much of Maine remained as European settlers found it long after the wolf was thought to be extirpated.

It is not entirely accurate to claim that when man extirpated the wolf, and farmers cleared the land, it ushered in the existence of “coyotes.” I doubt that Maine ever had a “coyote” but has always had some kind of mixed breed of wild canine. The coyote that most Mainers talk about in the Pine Tree State, are hybrid dogs that expanded its range from the Great Lakes region into eastern Canada and northern New England. Now there are so many of them that cross breeding of canines, wild and domestic is happening in rapid fashion. So what’s left? Some think it’s a dog species that deserves to be protected.

Ignorant people, thinking they are protecting wolves and coyotes by allowing them to proliferate unharnessed, don’t realize they are contributing to the animals’ demise. What roams Maine’s woods as a wild, or semi-wild canine, is a great example of that fact. Allowing and promoting the forced existence of wolves with other canines, wild and domestic, is destroying the wolf gene. Not only is the gene of the wolf being destroyed but with that genetic add-mixture, behavior of the offspring changes as well. That can open a can of worms in trying to predict the animal’s behavior.

It is important for people to understand the truth about any region’s history of wild animals, including wild canines. Filling people full of misleading information, often perpetuated by organizations with an agenda, is actually putting the existence and perpetuation of a real canine species in jeopardy.

But, animal perverts don’t care. All they are interested in doing is to save the life of any animal….er, uh, that is unless it’s a rat, tick or some other disease-carrying life form that is infecting or affecting them directly.

Stupid!

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Dogs as Sources and Sentinels of Parasites in Humans and Wildlife, Northern Canada

ABSTRACT

A minimum of 11 genera of parasites, including 7 known or suspected to cause zoonoses, were detected in dogs in 2 northern Canadian communities. Dogs in remote settlements receive minimal veterinary care and may serve as sources and sentinels for parasites in persons and wildlife, and as parasite bridges between wildlife and humans.

Dogs as Sources and Sentinels of Parasites in Humans and Wildlife, Northern Canada (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5594278_Dogs_as_Sources_and_Sentinels_of_Parasites_in_Humans_and_Wildlife_Northern_Canada [accessed Feb 18, 2016].

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Canines Host to Abortion-Causing Parasite

Eventually, after submitting fetuses to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for testing, the Koenses found the cause of their herd abortion problem to be Neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite that can affect a variety of large and small animal species, including cows, sheep, deer, goats and horses. The parasite causes a disease called neosporosis, which researchers say has become a leading cause of abortion and neonatal mortality in cattle in Wisconsin, across the U.S. and around the world. In fact, studies have shown that one or more animals in at least half of the dairy and beef herds in the United States have been exposed to this disease.

According to Koens, who has researched neosporosis since his encounter with it five years ago, the Neospora caninum parasite was first recognized as a common cause of cattle abortions in the late 1980s. It wasn’t until 1998, however, that scientists discovered the connection between Neospora caninum and canines.

Source: Canines Host to Abortion-Causing Parasite

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Defining Hybrids as Species is Political

*Editor’s Note* – For much the same reasons as the Ruling Establishment wants to outlaw opposing science that shows man-caused Climate Change is fake, politics will get us in a world of trouble by assigning specie designation to cross-bred wild and domestic canines.

In the article linked below, it clearly spells out that the purpose for wanting to assign a species to “hybrid” animals is so that they can be categorized for threatened or endangered animals – assuming that actually means for purposes of administering the Endangered Species Act. That’s where the money is.

Instead of dealing with the facts and reasons as to why we are seeing so much cross breeding among canines – an actual threat to species such as wolves and coyotes – evidently there must be more money in placing a label on a wild, mongrel dog and declaring it an endangered species.

“We infer from that pattern that a greater proportion of wolf DNA in any individual makes that individual more capable of exploiting that resource, in this case a whitetail deer,” Monzon said.

Genetic findings aside, Monzon agreed with Rutledge that defining hybrids as species is important for conservation. He said he expects more hybrids will be discovered as climate change shifts the ranges of different species, causing them to overlap.

Source: EMBARK: The eastern coyote quandary – LakePlacidNews.com | News and information on the Lake Placid and Essex County region of New York – Lake Placid News

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Yet Another “Benefit” of Forcibly-Imposed Wolves?

Please read the following disease notice (titled as an innocuous “Pet Health Topic”) presented under the auspices of Washington State College of Veterinary Medicine. Note the lines I have underlined and highlighted.

If as is known, but frequently denied:
– Tapeworm eggs of all sorts found in the feces of wolves (Apex contractors and spreaders of such Canine maladies throughout their range) and other canids last for years on vegetation, in the soil, in carpets, in campgrounds, yards, places frequented by dogs and on floors in homes.
– Tapeworm eggs can be carried into homes on boots, camping gear, and work clothes as well as by infected dogs.
– Dogs, even those vaccinated or recently “dewormed”, can contract and transport tapeworm eggs into homes subsequent to mouthing, rolling in, or licking items (sticks, bones, etc.) infected by tapeworm-infected wolves and other canids that do the same things. Eggs can also be transported into homes and yards on the dog’s paws, hair and even between their toes
– Dogs contract tapeworm infections from frequenting yards and areas frequented by wolves and then bringing the eggs into homes or yards where eventually the tapeworm segments full of eggs are not only are ejected in their feces but also ooze from their anus (hence the tell-tale sign of an infected dog that drags his itching anus wherever he happens to be from a porch floor to a carpet in the home or even on a child’s bed.)

Inquiring minds might ask, “Can this ‘rickettsial’ organism infect humans, since they are known dangers to mammals in general?”

As the human threat from this “rickettsial organism” Neorickettsia helminthoeca goes unmentioned in the Pet Health Topic”, (*See Below) I can only mention its’ absence and recall what was claimed by bureaucrats and “scientists” in the early years of forcible wolf introductions. You remember, regarding Echinococcus granulosis and E. multilocularis, “You have to eat feces to get tapeworms”; “Wolves don’t transmit tapeworms”, “Tapeworm fears are exaggerations by anti-wolf extremists”, etc.

*According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, “In people, Neorickettsia sennetsu causes a disease known as Sennetsu ehrlichiosis”, this is a mononucleosis-like fever carried by fish and for which the transmitting vector to humans is unknown as I write.

Regarding the consumption of fish by wolves (in addition to documentation of wolves eating plums, grapes, watermelons, fiddler crabs, and every form of mammal including each other) , Stanley Young wrote in Wolves of North America how wolves were documented to eat fish from Hudson Bay to Alaska and British Columbia and the states of Washington and Oregon. Page 221 shows a photo of a bank full of Alaskan salmon “partially eaten by wolves.” He reports later how “Indians in Oregon hung salmon to dry on tree limbs to protect them from wolves.”

Let us simply focus here on dogs: Pet dogs, Watch dogs, Hunting dogs, Service dogs, Show dogs, Guard dogs, Herding dogs, Stray dogs, etc., that occur in what the government blithely calls “Wolf Country” and millions of rural Americans call “Home.”

Wolves have and maintain a high rate of tapeworm infection since they are;
1. Unvaccinated and never “dewormed.”
2. Stick their noses, muzzles, and mouths in to every gut pile dying critter and dead critter infected with tapeworms they encounter.
3. Move, sleep, frolic, fight, bite, travel, etc. in groups such that what one has; they all get much like bats. Additionally, those dogs they encounter and do not kill but injure are likely to have a wide range of such infections.
4. Wolves deposit feces and mouth every sort of item (often leaving tapeworm eggs) where humans live, work, recreate and raise their families.

Wolves cover large areas routinely frequenting, prowling and depositing feces in yards, campgrounds, parks, towns during the night, bus stops, garbage sites, playgrounds, outbuildings and other areas of human presence as they look for food.

Knowing all this, why is there no or has there not been any “science” or “research” or simple, common-sense observations by neutral experts (believe it or not; once, long ago experts were respected and heeded precisely because of their neutrality) spoken, conducted or made available to the common citizen about the actual and expected numerous such effects on inhabitants of settled landscapes where wolves are ubiquitous versus settled landscapes where wolves either are tightly controlled or where no wolves exist?

The fact that there is no such information available (as we are invited to “submit comments” only to be marginalized as ignorant, speaks volumes.

In the Sherlock Holmes mystery, Silver Blaze, the following exchange takes place:

Gregory: “Is there any other point to which you would wish to draw my attention?”
Holmes: “To the curious incident of the dog in the night-time.”
Gregory: “The dog did nothing in the night-time.”
Holmes: “That was the curious incident.”

He (Sherlock Holmes) was referring to the fact that a watch dog didn’t bark and wake the family, which implied that the villain was someone familiar to the dog.

Like the characters in the mystery, we must consider the absence of any mention of actual wolf effects just like the dog that didn’t bark in the night. It is a clue to the hidden agendas that continue to be carried out under the table as we listen to romance biology and lies concocted to divert our attention.

Jim Beers
1 Sep. 2014
If you found this worthwhile, please share it with others. Thanks.

Jim Beers is a retired US Fish & Wildlife Service Wildlife Biologist, Special Agent, Refuge Manager, Wetlands Biologist, and Congressional Fellow. He was stationed in North Dakota, Minnesota, Nebraska, New York City, and Washington DC. He also served as a US Navy Line Officer in the western Pacific and on Adak, Alaska in the Aleutian Islands. He has worked for the Utah Fish & Game, Minneapolis Police Department, and as a Security Supervisor in Washington, DC. He testified three times before Congress; twice regarding the theft by the US Fish & Wildlife Service of $45 to 60 Million from State fish and wildlife funds and once in opposition to expanding Federal Invasive Species authority. He resides in Eagan, Minnesota with his wife of many decades.

Jim Beers is available to speak or for consulting. You can receive future articles by sending a request with your e-mail address to: jimbeers7@comcast.net

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WHO Describes Echinococcosis as “Considerable Public Health Problem”

WHO*Note* – It has been through the difficult and persistent hard work of Scott Rockholm in his research that he found and has shared, “WHO/OIE Manual on Echinococcosis in Humans and Animals: a Public Health Problem of Global Concern.” For this all of us are grateful.

Even though, as is described in this “Manual” that human Echinococcosis(Hydatidosis) has been around since nearly forever, it wasn’t until the introduction of wolves into the Greater Yellowstone Area that some humans became aware of the fact that these wolves and other canines, wild and domestic, can be carriers of untold numbers of diseases and parasites, including the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus.

When it was discovered in 2009 that over 60% of wolves tested in the Northern Rocky Mountains Distinct Population Segment of gray wolves were infected with the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, for many of us seeking truth, we wanted to know the whats, whys and wherefores of this parasite and how it would affect humans. For others, seemingly those whose bent is to protect the wolves that carry and spread this disease, any discussion of the topic usually resulted in the passing on of bad and irresponsible information and a playing down of the seriousness of this disease.

For those readers perhaps not familiar with this website, I have collected much information and studies on this disease and have really only scratched the surface. This information can be found through a link in the top menu bar of the home page. Click this link for more information.

Below is a portion of the “Preface” of the World Health Organization’s Manual. This disease is important enough to WHO and to the World Organization for Animal Health that even the title describes it as a “Public Health Problem of Global Concern.”

This “Manual” relates information about the disease, much of it in areas away from the United States, but the concern grows in this country as more and more wolves disburse throughout other areas of the country increasing the threat of the spread of infectious diseases and harmful parasites. Please bear in mind that over the past near 100 years there have been insignificant populations of wild wolves in America and thus the threat of the spread of E.g, from wolves, has been minimal, but grows as the number of wolves grows. Places around the globe that have always had wolves have dealt with human Echinococcusis for centuries. Because the United States has not, I suppose this has been reason for many, including the professionals we are told will protect us and those that are in charge of overseeing the management of wild canines, such as the wolf, to downplay the real and serious threat of human hydatidosis.

As is pointed out in this report, this threat is not something that should be downplayed as irresponsibly as it has been to date here in the United States. Education should be the first step in understanding how to effectively deal with this disease. For those interested, a copy of this report can be downloaded by clicking on this link.

“The second edition of the WHO Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention and Control of Echinococcosis/Hydatidosis, published in 1984, was focused on diagnostic methods and control measures available to combat this disease in humans and animals. These guidelines were very well received throughout the world and represented a valuable source of information for medical and Veterinary Services of many countries. Since then the understanding of the epidemiology of echinococcosis has been greatly improved, new diagnostic techniques for both humans and animals have been developed, progress has been made in the treatment of human echinococcosis, and new prevention strategies have emerged with the development of a vaccine against Echinococcus granulosus in intermediate hosts.

In spite of significant progress achieved in the field of research and control, human cystic echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, remains a considerable public health problem in many regions of the world. Ultrasound surveys of populations at risk have shown that cystic echinococcosis is more prevalent than previously anticipated in many endemic regions. To date, disease transmission has been reduced or interrupted in some limited areas only, especially on islands, such as Cyprus, New Zealand and Tasmania. In continental situations, however, E. granulosus control is more difficult, often less effective, is costly and requires sustained efforts over many decades.

Recent studies in Europe, Asia (i.e. People’s Republic of China and Japan) and North America have shown that E. multilocularis, the causative agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, is more widely distributed in the northern hemisphere than previously understood. Alveolar echinococcosis, althrough rare, represents a considerable public health burden as the infection is lethal in most untreated patients and treatment is very costly. In addition, in Central and South America, cases of polycystic echinococcosis in humans, caused by E. vogeli and E. oligarthrus, occur in apparently increasing numbers.”

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The Call to Protect Hybrid Wild Canines Across the U.S.

*Editor’s Note* – This article makes claims about a “New York State Museum” study that showed that eight wild canines that had been living in the Northeast were “wild.” Unfortunately, what is not discussed here, which is just as important, if not more so, is that no testing was done on these animals, in this study, to determine taxanomy, i.e. as to whether or not these animals are or were some kind of hybrid.

Other reports have repeatedly said that the wild canines being found in all of the northeast part of the U.S. and most all of the eastern half of the country are hybrid/mixes. Therefore, the bigger question should become why should we be trying to protect hybrid species, which is a violation of the Endangered Species Act?

“Environmental organizations are fighting efforts to take the gray wolf off the federal endangered species list, thinking it could some day return to the Adirondacks.

Though perhaps it already has.

In December 2001, a hunter in the northern Saratoga County town of Day killed what he thought was a coyote but was later determined to be a wolf — the first confirmed wolf killing in the Adirondacks in more than 100 years.

A decade later, a New York State Museum study proved through bone analysis of its diet that the wolf was wild, not a former pet or captive turned loose or escaped. Most likely, the young male had crossed the St. Lawrence River from Ontario.

Regardless of where that one came from, the Adirondack Park’s rural communities are full of folks who believe wolves live out in the deep woods.

“There’s certainly anecdotal evidence of wolves being seen in the Adirondacks,” said Dan Plumley of Adirondack Wild, who has photographed possible wolf tracks on his property in Keene.<<<Read More>>>

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Emergence of Sylvatic Echinococcus granulosus as a Parasitic Zoonosis of Public Health Concern in an Indigenous Community in Canada

Within a remote Canadian Indigenous community, at least 11* of people had antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus and E. granulosus eggs were detected in 6* of environmentally collected canine fecal samples. Dog ownership, hunting, and trapping were not risk factors for seropositivity, suggesting that people are most likely exposed to E. granulosus through indirect contact with dog feces in the environment. In this situation, human exposure could be most effectively curtailed by preventing consumption of cervid viscera by free-roaming dogs.<<<Read More>>>

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Hydatid Cysts in Elk and Unexplained Worms

The information for this article came to me from various sources of emails. In an email sent to Idaho for Wildlife, pictures of hydatid cysts infecting a recently harvested elk and a brief story are shared.

“Greeting Steve, my name is XXXXX XXXXX[Feb. 3, 2014 – name was removed per request of the person.]. I live in Cascade, Idaho. I saw the flyer on the hytadid elk disease on a flyer at a store in Donnelly, Idaho.

The attached pics are from a cow elk my wife shot last week a few miles north of Donnelly in Valley County. Lesions look the same. The entire elk was infested with tiny white worms. Every part of it. They were entirely thoughout all the meat. If you look in the pics closely the worms are kinda straight but wiggly shaped. I had a IDFG Officer inspect it. He got on the phone with the biologists at headquarters in Caldwell and they requested a sample and condemned the elk. They requested I bury it which I did. I looked over your groups website and thought I should forward this to you. Call me if you would like to discuss.”

XXXXX XXXXXX[Feb. 3, 2014, Name was removed per request of the person.]

All photos can be enlarged to full size for more precise viewing. Just click on the image and then click again on the following page.

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hydatid2

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hydatid4

The following is information sent to me by Lynn Stuter pertaining to the photos above.

“Like many of you, I received the following e-mail,

The attached pics are from a cow elk my wife shot last week a few miles north of Donnelly in Valley County. Lesions look the same. The entire elk was infested with tiny white worms. Every part of it. They were entirely thoughout all the meat. If you look in the pics closely the worms are kinda straight but wiggly shaped. I had a IDFG Officer inspect it. He got on the phone with the biologists at headquarters in Caldwell and they requested a sample and condemned the elk. They requested I bury it which I did. I looked over your groups website and thought I should forward this to you. Call me if you would like to discuss.

For those who don’t have ready access to a map, Donnelly is a ways south of McCall in Idaho. In looking at the attached pictures, at least some of the cysts, in the lungs, appear to be Hydatid cysts, ungulates being the intermediate host to the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm.

I sent the pictures to Dr Valerius Geist. In part he responded, “please spread the word to open suspicious cysts, cut it with your knife, to expose the hydatid sand.” The “Hydatid sand” Dr Geist speaks of is the tapeworm heads that look like sand in the fluid that exists inside the cyst. If the cyst is full of tapeworm heads, you know the animal had Hydatid.

While some may fear contracting Hydatid by doing this, know that the tapeworm heads must be ingested by a canine (wolf, coyote, dog) to become adult tapeworms capable of producing eggs. The tapeworm heads are not a threat to humans, only the eggs of the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm that causes Hydatid are a threat to humans. If ingested by a human, the eggs hatch in the intestines, burrow through the intestinal wall, enter the vascular system, and usually travel to the liver or lungs, where Hydatid cysts are formed.

Of course, if gutting an infected animal at the residence, be sure to secure and remove the guts (offal) so the family dog does not get into them, ingest the tapeworm heads, and become infected with the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm, thereby spreading the eggs in its feces around and in the home, eggs that are a threat to humans and especially to small children who play in the grass and on the floor in the home.

The worms in the meat of this elk would not be Echinococcus granulosus as the tapeworm heads, found in the Hydatid cyst, must be ingested by a canine (wolf, coyote, dog) to develop into mature tapeworms. If a cyst is ruptured, inside the host animal, the result is most often anaphylactic shock followed by death. This is also true with humans. There is always an exception to the rule, however. If a cyst is ruptured, and the host does not go into anaphylactic shock and die, the tapeworm heads do not infect the meat and become mature tapeworms; the tapeworm heads that survive form new cysts inside the host.

What the worms are, in the meat of this elk, is yet to be determined.”

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