May 23, 2019

Human Echinococcosis Mortality in the United States, 1990–2007

We identified 41 echinococcosis-related deaths among US residents during the period 1990–2007 (Table 1). Age-adjusted mortality rates were higher in males (0.012 per 106) than in females (0.005 per 106), with males more than 2 times as likely to die from echinococcosis than were females (adjusted rate ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.9).

Although these data are population based and contain large numbers of observations, death certificates likely underreport causes of death and may contain errors, which have been attributed to a variety of factors.

Fatal echinococcosis may be more common in the United States than currently appreciated. Echinococcosis causes a mortality burden in the United States that may be modified by increased prevention and control efforts, including vaccine development for adult cestode carriers and livestock [13]. Given the presence of echinococcosis mortality in US-born persons, and the risk of travel-related exposure, hygiene precautions should be advised for individuals traveling to Echinococcus species endemic areas. Clinicians should be aware of the diagnosis, particularly in foreign-born patients from Echinococcus endemic areas, and should consider tropical infectious disease consultation early.<<<Read More>>>

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Non Surgical Treatment for Echinococcosis

The YUDJINA Clinic specialises on the Echinococcosis Hydatid Cyst treatment (alveolar type also) – a very complex infectious disease caused by the helminthic invasion. The degree of insidiousness of this disease and its consequences can be compared, perhaps, only to cancer. The Echinococcosis infection and the development of the disease proceed imperceptibly for the person exposed to the larvated eggs. Echinococcosis is hard to diagnose.

Clearly expressed symptoms of the disease are absent during a long time, sometimes up to ten years. During this period, one or several Echinococcosis bubbles – cysts grow on various organs of the patient. More often the Echinococcosis affects liver, lungs, kidneys, and brain. Slowly expanding, the cyst reaches appreciable sizes – up to 20 cm in diameter, and its weight can reach 1 kg. Developed Echinococcosis cyst causes intense sufferings to the patient. In case of physical rupture of a cyst, a complex of various allergic reactions is possible, including the development of an anaphylactic shock.

…….The measures of the public preventive actions are to the following:
…….taking measures for the hygienic training of population, especially among the livestock breeders, the hunters, the dog breeders and the members of their families;(emphasis added)<<<Read the Rest>>>

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Human Echinococcosis Mortality in the United States, 1990–2007

Abstract
Background

Despite the endemic nature of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis infection in regions of the United States (US), there is a lack of data on echinococcosis-related mortality. To measure echinococcosis-associated mortality in the US and assess possible racial/ethnic disparities, we reviewed national-death certificate data for an 18-year period.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Echinococcosis-associated deaths from 1990 through 2007 were identified from multiple-cause-coded death records and were combined with US census data to calculate mortality rates. A total of 41 echinococcosis-associated deaths occurred over the 18-year study period. Mortality rates were highest in males, Native Americans, Asians/Pacific Islanders, Hispanics and persons 75 years of age and older. Almost a quarter of fatal echinococcosis-related cases occurred in residents of California. Foreign-born persons accounted for the majority of echinococcosis-related deaths; however, both of the fatalities in Native Americans and almost half of the deaths in whites were among US-born individuals.

Conclusions/Significance

Although uncommon, echinococcosis-related deaths occur in the US. Clinicians should be aware of the diagnosis, particularly in foreign-born patients from Echinococcus endemic areas, and should consider tropical infectious disease consultation early.

Author Summary

Human echinococcosis is a parasitic disease that affects an estimated 2–3 million people and results in an annual monetary loss of over $750,000,000 worldwide. It results in the development of life threatening tissue cysts, primarily in the liver and lung, following accidental ingestion of eggs in infected dog, fox or wild canine feces. Echinococcus parasites have a complex, two-host lifecycle (such as in dogs and sheep) in which humans are an aberrant, dead-end host. The vast majority of cases of human echinococcosis occur outside of the United States (US); however, cases within the US do occur. In this study, the authors examined death certificate data of US residents from 1990–2007 in which echinococcosis was listed as one of the diagnoses at death. The analysis demonstrated 41 echinococcosis-related deaths over the 18-year study period with foreign-born persons accounting for the majority of the deaths. This study helps quantify echinococcosis deaths among US residents and adds further support to the importance of funding echinococcosis prevention research.

<<<Read the Complete Study at National Library of Medicine>>>

In addition, another study involving the presence of cystic echinococcosis in humans was undertaken in Turkey. You can find that information at Research Gate. (Note: You can access the entire study for free but requires a membership form.)

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