September 20, 2018

Maine Gov. “Invasive Species” Portal Evidently Intended to Keep Environmentalists and Animal Righters Happy

The State of Maine has evidently developed, or is developing, a website portal geared at addressing concerns over invasive species. It appears there is concern about invasive fish and marine wildlife, along with invasive plants, diseases and parasites that might effect plants including agricultural crops, but there appears to be something missing from this portal. Where is the section about invasive animals? Surely there are invasive animals that pose just as a big a threat to Maine’s ecosystems than odd fish and the spreading of some plants.

If I were to pick just one invasive wild animal that is very destructive to Maine, I would have to pick the coyote. It’s easy for most, including employees at the Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife (MDIFW), to address only the obvious about coyotes, i.e. killing deer, lynx, livestock, turkeys, grouse, etc. but it is exceptionally inconvenient to discuss the more than 30 diseases and parasites the mixed breed canine spreads throughout the state.

We already know, and the MDIFW has done a superb job of covering up the disease, that moose are now victims of what the department prefers to call “lungworm.” Lungworm is a common man’s term for Hytadid disease from the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The diseases cause the growth of tumors in the lungs, liver, heart, and other places hindering the moose from having the best physical conditioning to escape predator danger. Because moose are known to be infected, it’s only a matter of time before deer will become so and any and all other wildlife ungulates and livestock, including sheep, cows, and pigs.

The Echinococcus granulosus (E.g.) parasite is carried and spread by coyotes, along with as many, if not more, than thirty other diseases. Oh, and did I mention that E.g. can be deadly to humans?

As populations of coyotes persist and grow across Maine, livestock, pets, and humans will be at risk from these diseases.

But we mustn’t talk about this because we are talking about an animal that some mentally ill people prefer to protect and perpetuate than insure the health of our people and the health and proper management of our wildlife and ecosystems in general.

However, consider the following information. It was brought to my attention a short time ago when a colleague asked how any species can be invasive. The answer was more or less simple. The species must come from outside of the Firmament, i.e. the earth, and the “waters above” and the “waters below.”

Man evidently has made the decision that starting at some random point in history, species that existed and where they were found would be how things must be kept. Odd and ironic that environmentalists love their wolves and other wild canines. They love to tell people how that millions of years ago “it is believed” that wolves/coyotes came to North America over that infamous “ice bright” somewhere around the Bering Straits. Beginning at that time, and moving forward, evidently everything else might be an invasive species. It would seem to me that if the wolf/coyote migrated here over an “ice bridge” during a period of “global cooling” (was that NOT a natural event?) then it was either an invasive species or there are no such things as invasive species.

Evidently an invasive species is some kind of plant or animal life that upsets the environmental narrative. If it’s on this “planet” how can it be invasive? And who left which man to be in charge of deciding at what point of time in history a line is drawn and any movement of plant or animal after that point is considered invasive and therefore not wanted. It would appear that using this same kind of thinking, or lack there of, that a strong argument could be made that the United States of America corporation is made up almost entirely by “invasive species” of humans.

The hypocrisy in all this is that the environmentalists want to control everything about our environment and ecosystems, but only to the point of which they want it. All else is wrong. Management of wildlife as a resource for food and products (hunting, fishing and trapping) evidently is unacceptable manipulation but playing gODs and deciding what stays and what goes is alright.

Doesn’t make much sense at all, but H.L. Menken, reminded us, that nobody ever went broke underestimating the intelligence of the American public.

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Maine Moose Study: All Dead Moose Had Echinococcus Cysts in Lungs

According to a report filed in the Bangor Daily News by outdoor writer George Smith, information not yet officially made public (and I have to wonder if all of the information will be made public) about Maine’s ongoing moose study, while extremely disturbing that the study is showing a terrible moose calf survival rate, it is also showing the presence of Echinococcus granulosus (E.g.) cysts infesting the lungs of all dead moose that were necropsied. “Field necropsies were performed within 48 hours on all moose mortalities. Weights were taken, tick loads were counted, and tissue samples collected for later analysis in the lab. All moose had some level of lung pathology attributed to infestation of adult lungworms (Dictyocaulus spp.) and/or Echinococcus cysts.”

Moose are an intermediate host of the Echinococcus parasite. The definitive hosts are wild canines – more than likely in the case of Maine the species of coyote/wolf cross-bred wild dog, which is also a substantial predator of moose calves and deer.

On February 20, 2013, the Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife (MDIFW) released a presser confirming the presence of E.g. in moose from information gathered from moose testing done by the University of Maine and the MDIFW. At that time, I contacted the commissioner of the MDIFW to get confirmation that the pathological term that biologists chose to use, lungworm, was, in fact, the Echinococcus granulosus worm.

I had also discovered that MDIFW posted information about their discovery on their website. After reading it, I did not think the information given was accurate and did not honestly express concerns in dealing with this infection nor the precautions that should be taken, especially anyone that can come in contact with the spore-like worm that can be deadly to humans.

The response, at that time, that I received back from the commissioner was that they were satisfied with the information they had published and had no intention of amending any of it. However, shortly after my conversations with the commissioner, the web page was taken down and to my knowledge cannot be found.

I do not know how many moose were tested then and what the percentage of moose were infected but the latest information indicates that all dead moose, adult and calf, from this study were infected.

How does this effect the moose’s ability to  survive? E.g. cysts can form in the lung, liver, brain and at some level, in other organs of the animal. Generally, the presence of the cysts is not directly fatal to the moose. Cysts growing in the lungs can seriously affect the breathing capacity of a moose, hindering its ability to escape the threat of predators. Studies have proven that.

Cysts can rupture causing all kinds of complications, even death due to anaphylactic shock.

There is the need for serious concern of humans contracting the worm. I will provide links below where readers can find tons of information about E.g. In the meantime, here’s a brief rundown of the threat to humans from E.g.

The wild canine, which often times can carry and spread up to 50 different diseases, viruses and parasites, is the definitive host of the parasite E.g. Their scat will contain hundreds, maybe even thousands, of tiny spore-like parasites that can actually become airborne. When wild ungulates, such as deer and moose, as well as domestic cattle, pigs and horses, graze near coyote/wolf scat, they risk ingesting some of these parasites. Infection of the disease and the growth of cysts occurs.

The threat to humans comes mostly from people with free-ranging dogs. Dogs will eat scat and roll in it. They return home with the tiny parasites, pretty much invisible to the human eye, and spread the parasites everywhere they go. Consider then your child playing with, being licked by, your dog, or the animal sleeping on furniture or in bed with adults and/or children. Of course there are other ways of becoming infected but almost all come through ingestion of the small spores – usually not intentionally. The spores can survive for long periods of time in water. Drinking water from a brook could be hazardous to your health. Now that we know Maine has this disease, extra precautions need to be taken.

In humans, the disease is called Hydatid disease and is near impossible to diagnose, has few symptoms and removal of cysts extremely problematic. As I have already mentioned, these cysts can rupture, most often leading to death.

Mostly because of lack of education, as is shown in the article that I have linked to above, any discussion of the presence of E.g. is casual and heavily avoided. It shouldn’t be. Yes, the disease has been around for a long time and has different forms, some more dangerous than others but it does exist and can be a real threat to humans.

Why are we now seeing this parasitic disease? More than likely due to the increased populations of coyotes and wolves – wolves in particular because they tend to travel farther and faster than coyotes, offering the opportunity to more rapidly and thoroughly spreading the worms.

For more information about the disease itself, follow this link. Follow this link for information about the disease and how it can effect humans and the threat that exists. This information was provided to me by qualified individuals. If readers would like more specific information, please leave requests in the comment section or email me directly.

Here’s an example showing the life cycle of the parasite.

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Echinococcus multilocularis Echinococcus granulosus in the Baltics

ABSTRACT:

In the Baltic countries, the two zoonotic diseases, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, and cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus, are of increasing public health concern. Observations from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania indicate thatthe distribution of both parasites is wider in the Baltics than previously expected. In this paper, we review and discuss the available data, regarding both parasitoses in animals and humans, from the Baltic countries and selected adjacent regions. The data are not easily comparable but reveal a worrisome situation as the number of human AE and CE cases is increasing. Despite improvements in diagnostics and treatment, AE has a high morbidity and mortality in the Baltic region. For the control of both zoonoses, monitoring transmission patterns and timely diagnosis in humans as well as the development of local control programs present major challenges.<<<Read More>>>

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E. Multilocularis Spreading Rapidly – Humans Threatened With Alveolar Echinococcosis

“Animal health researchers are watching what appears to be mounting evidence of the spread of a potentially dangerous parasite in coyotes, foxes and other animals in Canada.

That’s a concern, they suggest, because the parasite, a tapeworm, can on occasion spill over from its wild animal hosts to infect dogs and humans.

And while people aren’t the tapeworm’s preferred hosts, a growing number of human cases are being seen in Europe and parts of the world where the parasite is more established.”<<<Read More>>>

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Is IDFG Placating Idaho Sportsmen?

It’s disgusting that I even need to ask such a question, but how are sportsmen supposed to feel and react when they’ve been lied to, abused verbally, demonized, ignored, laughed at, had tax money stolen from them and basically treated like a piece of worm-infested porcupine scat?

The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) is sending out “kits” to moose hunters and asking them to:

1. Take a blood sample,
2. Saw off a slab of moose liver, and
3. Pluck some hair.
BTW – In looking at this letter (posted below), I don’t see anywhere in that letter any instructions on safety precautions needed for when hunters do IDFG’s dirty work. Perhaps it is contained in the kit itself somewhere. If there are readers privy to this information, could you please let me and readers know? It is very important.)

Each hunter then must make a mandatory stop at an IDFG office where each hunter will complete a “MANDATORY” check of the moose. This in addition to the request sent out recently to Idaho sportsmen asking that they report wolf and grizzly bear activity. Really? Why not report polar bear movements or those of penguins? Why now? Why are fish and game officials all of a sudden interested, or seemingly so, in what sportsmen think, see or do?

According to what is written on a letter sent to moose hunters by IDFG, the reason for this action is to: “improve moose management through a better understanding of disease in wildlife populations.

Isn’t it just a little bit too late? Where were these concerned wildlife managers when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) were lying to the American people telling them that wolves would have no significant impact on game herds or the spread of disease? (Please find this in the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the (re)introduction of wolves to the Northern Rockies.)

The wolf recovery team decided that it would not even bother to offer any kind of investigation into diseases that are carried and spread by wolves because any existing information was: “limited,” “poorly documented” and “can never be scientifically confirmed or denied.” These claims came at a time when there existed no fewer than 300 scientific studies worldwide just about the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus.

And today the World Health Organization includes on the “Fact Page” that: “More than 1 million people are affected with echinococcosis at any one time.”

When an individual, at least one who has the capacity to think independently, considers how government officials lied to them, and then how they have been treated before, during and after this crime of wolf (re)introduction was forced down their throats, why would they be eager to help these isolated by choice from the global scientific community elites with their fake task of “improve[ing] moose management through a better understanding of disease in wildlife populations”? It sure stinks of mollification to me.

For years these clowns were offered technical and scientific evident to help them “better understand wildlife diseases” and they plugged their ears, closed their eyes and shouted out loud, like a small child.

For crying out loud, back in 1971 wildlife biologists in Minnesota didn’t “discover” that Echinococcus granulosus tapeworms existed. They were out LOOKING FOR IT in moose.

That 1971 study result showed some of us, but evidently nobody at IDFG or USFWS, two distinct things:
1. “The incidence of E. granulosus and Taenia spp. in the northeast is evidence of a higher timber wolf (Canis lupus) population in this part of the state.”
2. “Data from the aerial census and classification counts indicate a net productivity of 30-35% in the northwest and 9-15% in the northeast. This indicates a difference is occurring in the survival rate of calves in their first six months of life between the two areas. Area differences in nutrition, predation and parasitism may be responsible for these observed differences in net productivity.”

Patrick Karns, in 1971, had a “better understanding” of wildlife diseases. It’s 2014, time for some TRUTH for a change!

This and the 600-plus studies in existence in 2001, when the World Health Organization published their latest scientific data on Echinococcus granulosis and Echinococcus multilocularis, evidently isn’t good enough for Idaho wildlife officials, or any others in this here United States of America. But NOW they want to ask Idaho moose hunters for help in better understanding wildlife diseases.

I’m not a resident of Idaho, nor do I buy a hunting license there, but if I did, my inclination would be to tell IDFG to STICK IT! You didn’t listen then and you won’t listen now. You are just trying to pacify the hunters and cover your own asses. No thanks!
IdahoMooseLetter

A tip of the hat to reader “Chandie” for sending me a copy of the letter.

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Minnesota Authorities Warn of Wolf Attacks

Seeing this reminds me of what is written in the 1994 Final Environmental Impact Statement(FEIS) that wolves in the Lower 48 states would not pose any significant threat to human health and safety. Of course I am sure that the authors of the FEIS didn’t think a few human lives was any big deal to lose when it comes to the protection and recovery of a species; one they claim they are required by the law of the Endangered Species Act to follow.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel said the same things about diseases, parasites, worms and infections carried and spread by wolves. We also know that it can take 10-15 years, or more, before Hydatid cysts can show up in humans, if detected at all, so how long before we will be hearing about more Americans inflicted with Hydatidosis?

Certainly the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has learned very little since 1994 as their recent Draft Environmental Impact Statement, in order that the Feds can change the rules of the game in mid-stream, shows their willingness to acknowledge that diseases such as cystic echinococcosis exists but are unwilling to even recognize that as wolves continue to be overprotected and forced into human-settled landscapes, the odds that humans will not be infected shrink. If they did acknowledge this fact, due to human safety they would not be seeking to spread more wolf filth on the land.

GRAND MARAIS, Minn. — Northeastern Minnesota authorities are warning residents about wolves attacking dogs and approaching people in Cook County.<<<Read More>>>

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Yet Another “Benefit” of Forcibly-Imposed Wolves?

Please read the following disease notice (titled as an innocuous “Pet Health Topic”) presented under the auspices of Washington State College of Veterinary Medicine. Note the lines I have underlined and highlighted.

If as is known, but frequently denied:
– Tapeworm eggs of all sorts found in the feces of wolves (Apex contractors and spreaders of such Canine maladies throughout their range) and other canids last for years on vegetation, in the soil, in carpets, in campgrounds, yards, places frequented by dogs and on floors in homes.
– Tapeworm eggs can be carried into homes on boots, camping gear, and work clothes as well as by infected dogs.
– Dogs, even those vaccinated or recently “dewormed”, can contract and transport tapeworm eggs into homes subsequent to mouthing, rolling in, or licking items (sticks, bones, etc.) infected by tapeworm-infected wolves and other canids that do the same things. Eggs can also be transported into homes and yards on the dog’s paws, hair and even between their toes
– Dogs contract tapeworm infections from frequenting yards and areas frequented by wolves and then bringing the eggs into homes or yards where eventually the tapeworm segments full of eggs are not only are ejected in their feces but also ooze from their anus (hence the tell-tale sign of an infected dog that drags his itching anus wherever he happens to be from a porch floor to a carpet in the home or even on a child’s bed.)

Inquiring minds might ask, “Can this ‘rickettsial’ organism infect humans, since they are known dangers to mammals in general?”

As the human threat from this “rickettsial organism” Neorickettsia helminthoeca goes unmentioned in the Pet Health Topic”, (*See Below) I can only mention its’ absence and recall what was claimed by bureaucrats and “scientists” in the early years of forcible wolf introductions. You remember, regarding Echinococcus granulosis and E. multilocularis, “You have to eat feces to get tapeworms”; “Wolves don’t transmit tapeworms”, “Tapeworm fears are exaggerations by anti-wolf extremists”, etc.

*According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, “In people, Neorickettsia sennetsu causes a disease known as Sennetsu ehrlichiosis”, this is a mononucleosis-like fever carried by fish and for which the transmitting vector to humans is unknown as I write.

Regarding the consumption of fish by wolves (in addition to documentation of wolves eating plums, grapes, watermelons, fiddler crabs, and every form of mammal including each other) , Stanley Young wrote in Wolves of North America how wolves were documented to eat fish from Hudson Bay to Alaska and British Columbia and the states of Washington and Oregon. Page 221 shows a photo of a bank full of Alaskan salmon “partially eaten by wolves.” He reports later how “Indians in Oregon hung salmon to dry on tree limbs to protect them from wolves.”

Let us simply focus here on dogs: Pet dogs, Watch dogs, Hunting dogs, Service dogs, Show dogs, Guard dogs, Herding dogs, Stray dogs, etc., that occur in what the government blithely calls “Wolf Country” and millions of rural Americans call “Home.”

Wolves have and maintain a high rate of tapeworm infection since they are;
1. Unvaccinated and never “dewormed.”
2. Stick their noses, muzzles, and mouths in to every gut pile dying critter and dead critter infected with tapeworms they encounter.
3. Move, sleep, frolic, fight, bite, travel, etc. in groups such that what one has; they all get much like bats. Additionally, those dogs they encounter and do not kill but injure are likely to have a wide range of such infections.
4. Wolves deposit feces and mouth every sort of item (often leaving tapeworm eggs) where humans live, work, recreate and raise their families.

Wolves cover large areas routinely frequenting, prowling and depositing feces in yards, campgrounds, parks, towns during the night, bus stops, garbage sites, playgrounds, outbuildings and other areas of human presence as they look for food.

Knowing all this, why is there no or has there not been any “science” or “research” or simple, common-sense observations by neutral experts (believe it or not; once, long ago experts were respected and heeded precisely because of their neutrality) spoken, conducted or made available to the common citizen about the actual and expected numerous such effects on inhabitants of settled landscapes where wolves are ubiquitous versus settled landscapes where wolves either are tightly controlled or where no wolves exist?

The fact that there is no such information available (as we are invited to “submit comments” only to be marginalized as ignorant, speaks volumes.

In the Sherlock Holmes mystery, Silver Blaze, the following exchange takes place:

Gregory: “Is there any other point to which you would wish to draw my attention?”
Holmes: “To the curious incident of the dog in the night-time.”
Gregory: “The dog did nothing in the night-time.”
Holmes: “That was the curious incident.”

He (Sherlock Holmes) was referring to the fact that a watch dog didn’t bark and wake the family, which implied that the villain was someone familiar to the dog.

Like the characters in the mystery, we must consider the absence of any mention of actual wolf effects just like the dog that didn’t bark in the night. It is a clue to the hidden agendas that continue to be carried out under the table as we listen to romance biology and lies concocted to divert our attention.

Jim Beers
1 Sep. 2014
If you found this worthwhile, please share it with others. Thanks.

Jim Beers is a retired US Fish & Wildlife Service Wildlife Biologist, Special Agent, Refuge Manager, Wetlands Biologist, and Congressional Fellow. He was stationed in North Dakota, Minnesota, Nebraska, New York City, and Washington DC. He also served as a US Navy Line Officer in the western Pacific and on Adak, Alaska in the Aleutian Islands. He has worked for the Utah Fish & Game, Minneapolis Police Department, and as a Security Supervisor in Washington, DC. He testified three times before Congress; twice regarding the theft by the US Fish & Wildlife Service of $45 to 60 Million from State fish and wildlife funds and once in opposition to expanding Federal Invasive Species authority. He resides in Eagan, Minnesota with his wife of many decades.

Jim Beers is available to speak or for consulting. You can receive future articles by sending a request with your e-mail address to: jimbeers7@comcast.net

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Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus Cysts in North Indian Patients: Identification of G1, G3, G5 and G6 Genotypes

“Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the Echinococcus granulosus, is a major public health problem worldwide, including India. The different genotypes of E. granulosus responsible for human hydatidosis have been reported from endemic areas throughout the world. However, the genetic characterization of E. granulosus infecting the human population in India is lacking. The aim of study was to ascertain the genotype(s) of the parasite responsible for human hydatidosis in North India.”<<<Read More>>>

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WHO Describes Echinococcosis as “Considerable Public Health Problem”

WHO*Note* – It has been through the difficult and persistent hard work of Scott Rockholm in his research that he found and has shared, “WHO/OIE Manual on Echinococcosis in Humans and Animals: a Public Health Problem of Global Concern.” For this all of us are grateful.

Even though, as is described in this “Manual” that human Echinococcosis(Hydatidosis) has been around since nearly forever, it wasn’t until the introduction of wolves into the Greater Yellowstone Area that some humans became aware of the fact that these wolves and other canines, wild and domestic, can be carriers of untold numbers of diseases and parasites, including the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus.

When it was discovered in 2009 that over 60% of wolves tested in the Northern Rocky Mountains Distinct Population Segment of gray wolves were infected with the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, for many of us seeking truth, we wanted to know the whats, whys and wherefores of this parasite and how it would affect humans. For others, seemingly those whose bent is to protect the wolves that carry and spread this disease, any discussion of the topic usually resulted in the passing on of bad and irresponsible information and a playing down of the seriousness of this disease.

For those readers perhaps not familiar with this website, I have collected much information and studies on this disease and have really only scratched the surface. This information can be found through a link in the top menu bar of the home page. Click this link for more information.

Below is a portion of the “Preface” of the World Health Organization’s Manual. This disease is important enough to WHO and to the World Organization for Animal Health that even the title describes it as a “Public Health Problem of Global Concern.”

This “Manual” relates information about the disease, much of it in areas away from the United States, but the concern grows in this country as more and more wolves disburse throughout other areas of the country increasing the threat of the spread of infectious diseases and harmful parasites. Please bear in mind that over the past near 100 years there have been insignificant populations of wild wolves in America and thus the threat of the spread of E.g, from wolves, has been minimal, but grows as the number of wolves grows. Places around the globe that have always had wolves have dealt with human Echinococcusis for centuries. Because the United States has not, I suppose this has been reason for many, including the professionals we are told will protect us and those that are in charge of overseeing the management of wild canines, such as the wolf, to downplay the real and serious threat of human hydatidosis.

As is pointed out in this report, this threat is not something that should be downplayed as irresponsibly as it has been to date here in the United States. Education should be the first step in understanding how to effectively deal with this disease. For those interested, a copy of this report can be downloaded by clicking on this link.

“The second edition of the WHO Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention and Control of Echinococcosis/Hydatidosis, published in 1984, was focused on diagnostic methods and control measures available to combat this disease in humans and animals. These guidelines were very well received throughout the world and represented a valuable source of information for medical and Veterinary Services of many countries. Since then the understanding of the epidemiology of echinococcosis has been greatly improved, new diagnostic techniques for both humans and animals have been developed, progress has been made in the treatment of human echinococcosis, and new prevention strategies have emerged with the development of a vaccine against Echinococcus granulosus in intermediate hosts.

In spite of significant progress achieved in the field of research and control, human cystic echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, remains a considerable public health problem in many regions of the world. Ultrasound surveys of populations at risk have shown that cystic echinococcosis is more prevalent than previously anticipated in many endemic regions. To date, disease transmission has been reduced or interrupted in some limited areas only, especially on islands, such as Cyprus, New Zealand and Tasmania. In continental situations, however, E. granulosus control is more difficult, often less effective, is costly and requires sustained efforts over many decades.

Recent studies in Europe, Asia (i.e. People’s Republic of China and Japan) and North America have shown that E. multilocularis, the causative agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, is more widely distributed in the northern hemisphere than previously understood. Alveolar echinococcosis, althrough rare, represents a considerable public health burden as the infection is lethal in most untreated patients and treatment is very costly. In addition, in Central and South America, cases of polycystic echinococcosis in humans, caused by E. vogeli and E. oligarthrus, occur in apparently increasing numbers.”

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Is Crawling Into a Disease-Infested Wolf Den Responsible?

The Spokesman Review has an article about how Idaho biologists are monitoring and studying about wolves. One biologist tells of being small enough to slide into a wolf den in order to examine and tag wolf pups. The report provides three photographs, I assume taken at the scene of some of the wolf dens and during examination of the pups, in which the female biologist has no devices, including mask on face and rubber gloves, to protect her from contracting disease. The ingestion of tiny Echinococcus granulosus eggs that probably are in mass numbers inside the den, can give a person hydatidosis – the growth of Hydatid cysts in organs in the human body that can be fatal.

We know that at least 60% of all wolves tested in Idaho have this dangerous tapeworm. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game even has an entire page about Echinococcus granulosus but evidently they don’t believe anything they have written about this disease if they are allowing this person to enter a wolf den(s) unprotected.

I wonder if the young biologist has any understanding of the potential danger she and others in her party are in?

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