June 16, 2019

Historically Wolves Have Killed Man on Regular Basis

VargensEuropaDespite historic documents that show to the contrary, all too often defenders of large predators, particularly the wolf, go out of their way to deny facts in order that their prized wild dog goes without blame for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people worldwide.

There are even knee-jerk responses from wolf lovers to somehow justify the killing of a person by a wolf because the wolf may have had rabies or some other disease, dishonestly causing people to think this event somehow disqualifies the wolf as a killer. Perhaps it is the same demented notion people have about insanity, that it presents a justifiable cause to kill.

Regardless of how anyone chooses to look at killing, whether a wolf is healthy or sick, under the right circumstances, they will kill and kill repeatedly. This fact does not justify the wanton destruction of wolves, or other large predators. It does, however, call for responsible management and control. As much as some people loathe that man exists and thus interferes with their precious wolves, the same historic documents readily show that wolves, forced into man-settled landscapes, is a formula for disaster – for both man and wolf.

Recently I was reading the “Abstract” of a study about, “Predators that Kill Humans: Myth, Reality, Context and the Politics of Wolf Attacks on People,” John D.C. Linnell, Julien Alleau. The Abstract reads as follows:

Seventeen species of large mammalian carnivore have been documented to kill people, although of these only five or six seem to do it on a regular basis. Predatory attacks on humans are generally rare, which combined with very variable and inconsistent reporting makes it hard to identify the mechanisms and patterns explaining spatial and temporal variation in attacks. In contrast to other species, the extent of wolf attacks on people has been subject to intense controversy in recent decades. Competing myths have been advanced by advocates and opponents of wolves, and the issue has become politically intertwined with a diversity of social conflicts associated with the changing nature of rural life and wildlife conservation in general. Examination of both the historical record and recent reports provides a massive body of evidence that wolves have been involved in many cases of attacks on humans. Although many of these cases are linked with rabid wolves, there is also plenty of evidence of recurring cases of predatory attacks. Because these have been associated with a special set of environmental circumstances (absence of wild prey, heavily modified landscapes, high density of humans engaged in vulnerable activities) that are no longer present in most areas the risks of wolf attacks are currently very low in most of wolf distribution. An emerging situation in North America and Europe concerns the appearance of fearless and habituated wolves, which requires careful study to develop appropriate threat assessments, mitigation measures and reaction responses.

The key elements here to pay attention to are “historical records,” “recurring cases of …attacks,” and “a special set of environmental circumstances.” Denying any and all of these serves no purpose other than to influence public opinion that might run contrary to the agendas of those intent of having large predators in everyone’s back yard.

While it is one thing to deny historic documentation, working feverishly to enhance the “special set of environmental circumstances” will accelerate the onset of human/wolf attacks. It would be of an extremely perverse intention that anybody would want for killing of humans by wolves. But, we do live in extremely perverse times.

In Will Graves book, “Wolves in Russia: Anxiety Through the Ages,” his travels and research to Russia provided clear documentation of the hundreds of thousands of attacks on man and property throughout Russian history.

Chapter 6 of Grave’s book reveals what seems an unending documentation of wolf attacks on humans. It becomes clear as you read the accounts that the number of attacks on humans is directly proportional to the wolf population. There are, of course, other environmental circumstances that influence this event. None of these circumstances should be ignored or denied.

Chapter 3 of “The Real Wolf,” co-author Ted B. Lyon writes:

“Save the Wolf” dogma indicates that wolves are not dangerous to humans, despite centuries of historical evidence to the contrary. This willingness to ignore historical records accompanies a propensity to rewrite the wolf’s history and habits, leaving people unprepared.

Centuries of historical evidence clearly and specifically recounts fatal wolf attacks. Wolves hunt in packs, thereby making them very dangerous to the relatively defenseless human. Unless wolves are routinely hunted, trapped, or shot at, they do not recognize or fear humans as the dominant species and instead view them as potential prey. Wolves are dangerous predators and should be viewed as such.

Once again, we are told not to ignore or deny historical evidence. Even if wolf attacks on humans are a “rare” event (this is a value-based adjective), educating oneself to the facts of wolf habits and those environmental circumstances that drive a wolf to want to attack and kill man, might, one day, save a life and that of a wolf.

In my own book, “Wolf: What’s to Misunderstand?,” beginning around page 18, I spend several pages dealing with wolf history, including world wide events of wolf attacks on humans. These attacks were a regular event and people had to learn how to deal with it or die. Often wolf advocates ridicule any occasion that might involve human fear of wild wolves. It is quite unfortunate because it sets an improper stage of learning how to deal with these animals. It’s easy to sit back and snicker, when you have never had to deal with an attacking wolf. Why is history so much denied?”

Throughout the First Chapter of, Wolf: What’s to Misunderstand?, I shared parts of documents from written accounts of wolves and human encounters from many parts of the world. These accounts are fascinating and full of information all of us can learn from. But will we?

The other day, I received a document that comes from Page 130 of Kaj Granlund’s book, “Vargens Europa.” This book (no English translated version available yet) documents the wolf and its history – how wolves for thousands of years have terrorized the world’s rural populations.

Please find a pdf of Page 130 here.

This document shows nearly 180 confirmed human deaths, caused by wolves, in Finland from 1710 – 1881. What is also remarkable in this document is how it shows that once wolves attack and kill one person, it is followed by more attacks. The author told me, “It is obvious from the table that when a wolf (pack) discovers humans as potential prey, it turns focus on humans instead of traditional pray.”

It is also important to point out some of the “environmental circumstances” surrounding this table. From the “Abstract” above, we are told that within each region where wolves exist, circumstances drive the habits of wolves. Readers of this website should, by now, have a pretty good understanding about how to recognize many of those circumstances by reading Dr. Valerius Geist’s, “When Do Wolves Become Dangerous to Humans?

Author Granlund writes in an email to me, “You have to know a bit about our history to understand variations. In fact the only thing we know is that these people were killed by wolves. We don’t know how many others were killed as the resident registration was kept by the local vicars. The vicars only registered important events as marriages, births and deaths. Births were registered on the parent’s, not on the born child.

If the body was found the vicar wrote in his diary name, date when killed, age and COD. If someone simply disappears in the forest nothing was written in the books. They knew the different diseases. If someone was attached by rabid wolves and he/she was infected then the COD would have been “wolf + rabies”. If a rabid wolf simply kills its victim and escapes, the COD would probably be “killed by wolf”.

There are some events in our history that needs some attention. During the Great Northern War (1700 – 1721) many events were never recognized because whole families disappeared from their homes without notice. Some were simply killed, others taken as slaves and brought to Russia.

After 1809 Finland was ruled by the Russian emperor (tsar). The welfare began to rise and the statistics were more accurate. Several events affected human-wolf relationship during 1860’s and after. Without digging too deep into history, one law that came into force was the dog licence fee (read tax). There was an annual fee on each dog which rapidly reduced the number of guarding dogs thus making it easier for wolves to roam without notice in inhabited areas.

The wolves were practically exterminated by Russian wolf hunters in the 1880’s and the wolf attacks came to an end.

As I have said, it is easy to lay claim that wolves don’t attack people, when one’s sphere of reality is limited to local surroundings and never having to encounter of deal with wolves. With self-imposed limitations of wolf history, how can anyone be expected to responsibly deal with the reality of wolves?

At the most elemental level of understanding, if wolf populations continue to rise in the United States and spread throughout greater geographical regions, it only stands to reason that the envelope of certain attacks will also increase.

Use some logical understanding and reason. We know that in places where many wolves roam and few people live, accounts of wolf attacks is quite rare. What then happens if many wolves are forced into man-inhabited areas?

If one was to honestly evaluate all the possible environmental circumstances that can and will drive a wolf, or any large predator, including an increase in numbers of wolves and numbers of humans, it makes little sense to deliberately increase the chances that someone is going to get killed.

Stop ignoring history. Examine the evidence. Understand the variables that changes habits of wolves and large predators. Let people live in peace.

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Who’s Copying Who?

Guest post by James Beers:

A recent “scientific paper” from Finland:

Strong community support for illegal killing challenges wolf management

Abstract

In Finland, the conservation of large mammalian carnivores—brown bear, lynx, wolf and wolverine—is undermined by illegal killings that have commonly taken place after the implementation of national carnivore management plans. This hidden form of criminality cannot occur to such an extent without strong support from the local community. We examined the support of proximate groups by collecting data from hunters and women. In collecting data, we used non-active role playing with empathy-based fictitious stories. We used argumentation analysis to reveal the assumed species, the background of the illegal killing and especially the justifications and importance of community support for illegal killing. The results show that we have a conflict with strong basic emotions in hand as both illegal killing and support for illegal killing and hunting violators are based on anger and fear for children and domestic animals as well as frustration toward the authorities and the lack of proper management actions. The wolf is at the centre of the conflict due to the specific character of the species. Current policies have inevitably been lacking in terms of place-based policy, and that has led to conflicts between game management authorities/researchers and ordinary citizens. To facilitate a change in attitudes, we suggest focusing on affective factors via confidence-building measures.(emphasis added)

When Nixon was making his “Opening” to China he had the Smithsonian send over to our new found chums a cultural exchange. Good bureaucrats that they were, the “Smithsonians” recommended a display of Native American items to encourage solidarity between the Chinese (people) and the North American Native people. I am reminded of the reported reaction of Chinese visitors to that display as I read the above “report” from Finland. It seems the Chinese man-on-the-street was greatly amused by the American artifacts that only showed them what thieving rascals Americans were. You see, they were convinced that the capitalist/imperialist scum had clearly stolen the artifacts from Manchuria and Mongolia and shamelessly claimed them to be American artifacts.

Could the above article from Finland have been copied from Minnesota or Montana or Idaho or Oregon or Washington or North Carolina or Arizona or New Mexico or Michigan government “scientist/bureaucrat/undercover agents” presenting themselves as good-old-boy rural bumpkins to seduce the backward rustics and publish this paper?

All of those states have the same problem and slick, urban dandies want “government” to stop it. One must assume these bureaucrat know-it-alls have exhausted all other possibilities like hiring local spies or offering immunity or some other charge or recording bar room conversations or satellite photography or drones to identify the perpetrators of what the far-off elites see as crime and the local residents see as public service. Thus we see a glint of what lies ahead where I have underlined the ominous last sentence where the “ordinary citizen” (i.e. the local provincials) will be the target of “a change in attitudes, we suggest focusing on affective factors via confidence-building measures.”

Whatever that means, it is not good. If your attitude is not full supportive of government policy, it is off to a re-education camp in Hanoi or Phnom Penh. You see, current rural Europeans under the EU authorities are exactly like rural Americans under Washington DC authorities. If there is NO concern for them, their families, their communities, and their traditions and economies when wolves were made into weapons of the hidden agendas of powerful urban elites to be used at will on rural targets; can you be anything but deeply concerned about what these same folks will not shirk from doing when identifying and punishing those that think they have any Right to frustrate what these increasingly powerful overlords and their enforcers have wrought?

The parallels between rural Europeans and rural Americans grow closer every day. We should each keep an eye on each other because you can bet your bippy that the European, American & UN bureaucrats, “biologists”, enforcers and radical supporters are meeting and burning up the phone (do they still use “lines” anymore?) as they plot, scheme and “partner” about how to ratchet up the game and teach the rest of us a “lesson.”

If government decrees “brown bear, lynx, wolf and wolverine”; no matter the kids, dogs, sheep, cattle, families and economies affected. As old Sherlock Holmes once said and Shakespeare wrote in Henry V, “the game is afoot!”

Jim Beers
3 August 2014

If you found this worthwhile, please share it with others. Thanks.

Jim Beers is a retired US Fish & Wildlife Service Wildlife Biologist, Special Agent, Refuge Manager, Wetlands Biologist, and Congressional Fellow. He was stationed in North Dakota, Minnesota, Nebraska, New York City, and Washington DC. He also served as a US Navy Line Officer in the western Pacific and on Adak, Alaska in the Aleutian Islands. He has worked for the Utah Fish & Game, Minneapolis Police Department, and as a Security Supervisor in Washington, DC. He testified three times before Congress; twice regarding the theft by the US Fish & Wildlife Service of $45 to 60 Million from State fish and wildlife funds and once in opposition to expanding Federal Invasive Species authority. He resides in Eagan, Minnesota with his wife of many decades.

Jim Beers is available to speak or for consulting. You can receive future articles by sending a request with your e-mail address to: jimbeers7@comcast.net

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Problem With Wolves in Finland: More Than 9 Incidents in 2 Weeks

*Editor’s Note* – Below is part of an email I received today about dealing with wolves in Finland. Note that it states these incidents, and evidently there are more, happened during a 2-week period of time in February (2014).

To make the effort by readers easier, I have left the original link as was sent but I took the time to include the link to a translated version of the story. Please bear in mind that the Google translation is not a perfect translation but it should be good enough that readers can understand what is taking place. You can read the translated stories by clicking on the “Translation” link after each original link.

This is what we have here. And this all has happened in only February in less than two weeks time!
(There are more news links here:http://www.taajamasusi.com/uutislinkit-2014.)
Translation

Two wolves attacked and ate a deer near houses in Huittinen, South-Western Finland. In this place in picture there are 15-20 wolves living in the area.
http://alueviesti.fi/2014/02/11/kaksi-sutta-raateli-peuran-huittisten-palojoella/
Translation

Here are wolf tracks in Seinäjoki, middle- Finland in Western part. They were found 300 m from houses.
http://www.ilkka.fi/uutiset/maakunta/jattiko-jaljen-susi-vai-suuri-koira-1.1553500
Translation

This is at Uukuniemi, Eastern Finland, 100 meters from Houses, wolf on the way to village center and church.
http://www.uukuniemi.info/artikkelit/Susi_liikkeella_Uukuniemella_1591
Translation

This happaned in Honkajoki, in Western coast. Man found traces of wolf in his home yard.
http://www.kankaanpaanseutu.fi/Uutiset/1194873843901/artikkeli/sudet+liikuskelevat+honkajoella.html
Translation

In this case a girl was riding a horse in Hämeenlinna, Southern Finland, when a possible wolf hybrid attacked the horse from the back side. The horse managed to kick the wolf and it stopped the attack.
http://www.aamulehti.fi/Kotimaa/1194874124162/artikkeli/ratsastaja+saikahti+suuri+elain+hyokkasi+hevosen+kimppuun+oliko+se+susi+.html
Translation

Here was a radio satellite -wolf walking in village center in Ilomantsi, Eastern Finland. This wolf’s pack has visited home areas several times during January and February.
http://www.pogostansanomat.fi/uutiset/Etusivu/4864683
Translation

Here is a young wolf walking in Oulu city area in Northern (or middle) Finland.
http://yle.fi/uutiset/nuoren_suden_epaillaan_liikkuvan_oulussa/7071813
Translation

This man has wolf tracks almost every week in front of his house. Some of the visits are made by the radio-satellite-wolf “Hessu”.
http://www.sotkamolehti.fi/Uutiset/1194872288166/artikkeli/virtalan+pihan+lapi+juoksee+susia+harva+se+viikko.html
Translation

This is a wolf or possible wolf-hybrid in Joensuu-city waste plant area. It has visited the area every other week since summer.
http://yle.fi/uutiset/joensuun_iiksenvaaralla_saattaa_liikkua_harvinainen_koirasusi/7068607
Translation

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