December 3, 2021

Contagious Perversion: We Must Protect Wild Mongrel Dogs

“I do not believe it is accurate to call them coyotes when their DNA throughout northeastern North America is composed of western coyote, eastern wolf, gray wolf, and dog genes,” Way said.

…the mission of Eastern Coyote/Coywolf Research is to promote the appreciation and acceptance and provide better protection of this creature…<<<Read More>>>

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Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Variation of Wolves ( Canis lupus ) in Southeast Alaska and Comparison with Wolves, Dogs, and Coyotes in North America

Abstract

There is considerable interest in the genetics of wolves (Canis lupus) because of their close relationship to domestic dogs(C. familiaris) and the need for informed conservation and management. This includes wolf populations in Southeast Alaska for which we determined genotypes of 305 wolves at 173 662 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. After removal of invariant and linked SNP, 123 801 SNP were used to quantify genetic differentiation of wolves in Southeast Alaska and wolves, coyotes (C. latrans), and dogs from other areas in North America. There is differentiation of SNP allele frequencies between the species (wolves, coyotes, and dogs), although differentiation is relatively low between some wolf and coyote populations. There are varying levels of differentiation among populations of wolves, including low differentiation of wolves in interior Alaska, British Columbia, and the northern US Rocky Mountains. There is considerable differentiation of SNP allele frequencies of wolves in Southeast Alaska from wolves in other areas. However, wolves in Southeast Alaska are not a genetically homogeneous group and there are comparable levels of genetic differentiation among areas within Southeast Alaska and between Southeast Alaska and other geographic areas. SNP variation and other genetic data are discussed regarding taxonomy and management.

<<<Read More>>>

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In Protest of Protecting Hybrid Wild Dogs, Sheep Flock to Eiffel Tower

““It’s a bit like asking what is the point of an eagle, or a piece of music, or a painting. The wolf is part of life,” Patrick Boffy, the head of Ferus, told the BBC. “It returned naturally to France – the only southern European country where it had disappeared.”

“In France, we need to learn, little by little, how to live alongside wild animals again,” he added.”<<<Read More>>>

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Female Coyotes Birth Wolf Hybrids in Captivity

“During the 2012 and 2013 study, the scientists attempted to inseminate nine captive western coyotes with sperm from eight different gray wolves at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services National Wildlife Research Center Predator Research Facility in Logan, Utah. Three coyotes became pregnant, and one successfully birthed and nursed six live, healthy pups, currently housed at the Wildlife Science Center in Forest Lake, Minn., north of the Twin Cities.”<<<Read More>>>

*Editor Comment* – Common sense (absent today) would tell a once 8th grade science class that if two animals can successfully breed, they are of the same species. These clowns, however, are suggesting it’s reason to create another subspecies of wolf and then protect it as in endangered species.

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Attention Focused on NC As Judge Bans Coyote Hunting to Protect Hybrid Red Wolf

“We first addressed the story of landowner Jett Ferebee and the red wolves on his farm in February, shortly after he became the first and only person granted a legal take permit to kill red wolves on his property.

“It wasn’t but a few short weeks after I got [the permit] that the judge banned coyote hunting,” Ferebee said in a recent phone interview. “Can you imagine two canine predators completely protected on the landscape? It was the most foolish thing… and US Fish and Wildlife Service refused to get involved in it.””<<<Read More>>>

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Wolf/Coyote Hybirds Menacing D.C. Suburb Park

“We’ve known for a while that most Eastern coyotes are hybrids to some degree, and now we’re finding a greater degree of hybridization than anyone expected,”<<<Read More>>>

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What Was Thought to Be Coyote Attacks May Have Been Coywolves

“Muskego — The coyote attacks on two fairly large dogs — one 60 pounds and the other nearly 80 pounds — on Woods Road in Muskego has led to speculation that hybrids called coywolves might have been responsible.

Coywolves are a cross between coyotes and wolves. Wildlife experts say the cross breeding came about as the numbers of wolves in the upper eastern United States and eastern Canada were depleted in numbers and coyotes had migrated into their range.

Coywoves, first notes in 1919, are bigger than coyotes but much smaller than wolves. They have a bigger fluffy tail and their jaws are wider than a coyote’s. They are hard to distinguish from coyotes.”<<>>

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When THE LAW is the Problem

LawProvided by James Beers:

Yesterday I wrote TWO QUESTIONS, an article that appears [on this website]. An astute and well-informed reader in Europe wrote me the following response to that article:

By American law ..

I : = B
2 : = B

In other words, pups born as the result of the mating of a wolf and a dog are legally unprotected dogs and not protected wolves. This is true. Additionally, anyone that shoots, traps, injures, harasses such a DOG is not bound by any law concerning wolves but only those state and local Laws and Ordinances concerned with DOGS. This is also true.

However, I submit that today neither of these things are really true.

We throw around these reputedly “scientific”-based terms like wolf, dog and coyote like they are elephants, lemurs and kangaroos. While these latter THREE Species don’t look alike or eat the same things, they are absolutely, inexorably and basically different because THEY CANNOT MATE AND PRODUCE VIABLE (fully capable of and able to reproduce their own kind) OFFSPRING. Once upon a time for centuries and until very recently this capability to produce viable offspring was the defining characteristic determining, what was a distinct group of animals we defined as a Species. That is why mules (the offspring of a horse and a donkey that are not capable of producing viable offspring) are NOT a species, for instance. This definition of Species, while biological, has served us all well for centuries in myriad ways as we domesticated animals and managed wild animals for the benefit and protection of our families, communities and societies.

Enter the wolf and federal wolf laws and regulations.

In the late 1960’s, in the midst of great social chaos in the United States federal jurisdiction and authority over wild animals took major authorities from state governments under the auspices of “saving” endangered Species. This new federal authority steadily grew into previously unimaginable federal power to take and control private property; destroy formerly viable businesses; close public lands to any use or management or renewable natural resources; stop construction projects like dams and irrigation districts; eradicate valuable game animal herds; destroy local economies and communities; and even destroy the lives, families and livelihoods of rural men and women protecting their property and families from radically destructive government actions.

Early-on federal seizure and protection of remnant wolves as an endangered “Species” in Minnesota and subsequent releases of wolves in the Upper Rocky Mountains in a National Park and on an Indian Reservation (two locations that share the unique distinction of always having been outside and beyond state or surrounding local jurisdictions and their authority). Long story short, absent the federal “Endangered” Species Act, absent the absolute central government power it spawned largely due to federal bureaucrats writing and amending federal regulations to serve their own purposes plus the inattention of the public and state governments busy “Hoovering”- up (i.e. vacuuming or sucking-up) federal dollars with “strings” – were it not for all this – there would only be a remnant wolf population (and moose to hunt once again) in Minnesota and other than a few straggling wolves along the western Canadian/US border NO WOLVES IN THE LOWER 48 STATES today.

But, what is a wolf? Wolves breed with and produce viable offspring with all dogs, all coyotes PRODUCING VIABLE OFFSPRING. The genes of these three animals are in reality a stew of all manner of interbreeding from numerous wild encounters that have gone on for eons to the intentional crossbreeding by men to obtain more fearsome animals or animals with more stamina to do work like pulling sleds or any of a countless number of other human intentions lost in the mists of time.

Thus we in the Lower 48 States find ourselves fighting for our lives, families and livelihoods against a hostile (against humans) government with the outcome often hinging on points like:

– Was that a wolf you killed?

– Was it a wolf that killed your sheep?

– Is that a wolf hanging out where your kids play or catch the bus?

– Was that a wolf you were shooting at?

– Is that a wolf den with a wolf bitch and wolf pups “out back” of the pasture?

– What is your expertise to say it was not a wolf?

– You should have exercised due caution.

– Do you just shoot at anything?

– How could you have placed a snare like that where wolves were present?

– How do YOU tell a wolf from a German Shepherd or a large coyote?

– On what do you base YOUR expertise?

Ah, but you say “we have DNA Analysis” to identify wolves. HMMM, who sets the “Wolf” DNA Standard: The “Dog” DNA Standard: the “Coyote” DNA Standard? Is it the same “scientists” either employed by or funded in large measure by the federal government? “’It’ is a dog when ‘it’ has 30% of this and a coyote when it has 62% or more of that and a wolf when we say so”! Really?

DNA Analysis is perfectly suited for individual identification as shown daily by criminal investigators. But there is a great difference between tying someone’s DNA to the DNA found at a crime scene and the ARBITRARY standard that there is a genetic line and on one side we will call them wolves and on the other a dog and on yet another it is a coyote. Those are value judgments made by bureaucrats and the “scientists” they employ AFTER the fact of all these disputes arising from the forced introduction and protection of wolves. When such determinations determine prosecutions and great harm to citizens they are reminiscent of 19th century phrenologists describing the “criminal type”, or acolytes of Margaret Sanger describing the mentally-deficient that should be killed, or 1930’s racial “experts” describing those with Jewish “blood”.

None of that DNA specificity about wolves (in all their, like dogs, endless VARIETIES) is published in any regulation. That they can and do often look alike is undeniable. It is as if citizens were told that some deer had a gene resistant to Chronic Wasting Disease and they are totally protected but all the other deer, without the gene, should be killed to save the deer from the disease. The fact that they all looked alike and could only be identified after being killed was the shooter’s problem and if a warden found you with a deer THAT HAD THE GENE; you would be prosecuted, fined, imprisoned and have much of your property seized by the government. Distinguishing such deer is no different than relying on arbitrary government DNA Standards to identify real wolves! Such use of DNA findings is in fact (I speak here as an old state and federal law enforcement officer) DISCRETIONARY.

Forget that you thought it was a coyote or that you were sure it was a large dog that killed your dog or livestock. If I was the state or federal enforcer you wound up with and I was interested in:

– Ingratiating myself with environmental/animal rights zealots running my agency.

– Making an example of you to put the fear of (Gaia?) in others.

– Helping to rid the area of hunters, grazers, loggers, etc.

– Making a name for myself with a prosecution that engenders lots of publicity.

– Simply interested in proving how tough I am to both the public and coworkers.

– Getting even with you for some reason.

– Impressing everyone with how important these nutty laws are.

– Needing a complex investigation to justify overtime or Premium Pay.

– Forging a case with “Precedence Value” to immortalize myself.

– Etcetera.

I could be your worst nightmare.

Look no further than the recent “raid” on the cattle operation of Mr. Bundy in Nevada by such government enforcers, without a court order, that resulted in the shooting of valuable livestock and confrontations with citizens fomented by enforcers armed to the teeth ostensibly protecting a tortoise that nearby government-funded solar panel farms are harming far worse than any cattle. Those enforcers are “doing their job”, being rewarded for a “good job” and are planning their next moves to further oppress citizens as I write. (“Next time we will first use bean bags by the camera and then loudspeakers and then we rush them if they don’t disperse and then…!”)

Wolves, dogs and coyotes that appear for all intents and purposes as the same animal are either: A.) Wolves completely protected at all times, B.) Coyotes that are unprotected and may be killed at any time, or C.) Dogs that are either 1.) someone’s private property and thus covered by property laws and the owners ire, or 2.) free-roaming dogs covered or not by local ordinances and/or state laws. Just as the cattle shooters are apparently unrestrained as they go about their “duties”; so too are the enforcers arresting and prosecuting citizens that kill or bother wolves that may or may not look to every American just like a large coyote or dog.

Utilizing the discretion inherent in this genetic mishmash, I would seize the animal in question or describe it if it got away as a wolf. As I built the case, I would document your background, interview people that had dealt with you like environmentalists and anti-gun folks and game wardens and other enforcers. I would copy and enter as evidence everything you ever said or wrote about wolves or government benevolence. Only if the DNA Analysis was absolute (there is no such wolf or dog or coyote) would I stop if I wanted to go forward. I would document how you thought “it looked like” a large/small, light/dark canid (i.e. wolf/dog/coyote?). How you didn’t know about how tails and ears indicate one animal or the other. I would document how you mistakenly guessed the weight of the animal or how you misread the tracks around your dead dog and how you didn’t know the official government distances distinguishing the tracks of a wolf and the tracks of a coyote. I would catch all the times you said things like “that looked like” something you “should have” or “shouldn’t have” done .I will have a field day because the laws and regulations give the government all the aces and the citizens all the deuces.

In addition to watching ambulance chasers descending on you like vampires when the sun goes down, I would “shop” for the “professor” or DNA “Analyst” (just like litigious modern environmental Americans “shop” for Washington DC or 9th Circuit judges and courts to get judges that prefer them) to get DNA “Results” that will send you like Diogenes in search of “your own” “Analyst” or “Professor” that the court and jury will look down on as inferior to the august government “expert witness”. The public will admire me and begin to look on you as they do that guy that owns (owned?) the Los Angeles Clippers with the “girlfriend” about the age of his grandkids. Whether I win or lose: you lose and I win! Why? Because, it is all based on a bad (un-Constitutional and oppressive) law with all manner of hidden agendas and loopholes put there over time by self-serving bureaucrats that keep harmful federal and state politicians in power with illusions about animals.

So is “B.” the right answer to both questions?

1.) Is the wolf bitch birthing pups from eggs fertilized by a German Shepherd, a coyote and a Yellow Lab (yes litters can have more than one Papa) giving birth to wolves or dogs? Despite what a lawyer or bureaucrat tells you about how DNA “proves” and the Endangered Species Act says they are unprotected dogs: believe them at your own risk. Those offspring are what a court and a judge says they are. Go no further than the next generation when the half-Lab is subsequently bred by a wolf and the Lab genes join the genes of ancient semi-wild dogs from Indian Villages, peasant cottages in Medieval France and caves in prehistoric Europe and Asia in the genetic soup of the “wolf” critter you are charged with “taking”.

2.) Is the person that kills or harasses such offspring of a wolf/dog cross a felon or a hero? See #1. If the pup grows up looking just like his mother’s brother in the Little Red Riding Hood story, I would not hold out a hope or expectation of some benevolent enforcer or government bureaucracy with a scintilla of concern about your welfare if you are caught in a web of prosecution wherein the outcome revolves on what a jury thinks about the charges against you in light of claims about what the DNA “proves.”

I must admit I think the answer to both questions is “it depends.”

Like tyrannies down through the ages, our fate once more has come to “depend” on bad laws that exist only to mask the way the whims of the powerful are imposed on the rest of us day in and day out; in all we must do and all we cannot do.

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Hybrid Wolves Slaughter 10 Deer

“When he got to the scene, he witnessed two wolves killing his deer.

Ten of his 57 deer were killed before he shot and killed the wolves to stop them from killing his deer.

USDA trappers came to pick up the wolves, which they called “hybrid” wolves.”<<<Read More>>>

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James Beers: Wolves – 2014

*Editor’s Note* – The below writing perhaps reflects the greatest knowledge and understanding of the effects of forcing wild wolves into human-settled landscapes. Such a writing should give readers the opportunity to fully grasp the entire scope of how romance animal fantasy should never mix with the scientific realities of protecting a dangerous-in-so-many-ways creature where humans live.

However, while one must applaud Mr. Beer’s effort at searching for a solution and his correct analysis of a top-down dictatorial control over everything plant and animal, his proposed solution, while should it actually come to fruition may possibly work and work well, this will not be accomplished solely at the ballot box, if there at all.

The top-down dictatorship of global powers has infiltrated so deeply into our lives for so many years, ballot boxes, while they shouldn’t be eliminated, will not work alone until a miraculous return to self-determination and independence, through a strong foundation of moral principles and values and a return a fear and love of our Creator, has transformed this nation and globe.

Thank you to Jim Beers for caring enough to take the time and lay out the facts for all and for offering a solution.

Guest posting by James Beers:

As Americans and Europeans awaken to the ancient realities of cohabiting with wolves in settled landscapes from which they were extirpated 50 to hundreds of years ago, all manner of heated discussions, questions and coalitions are emerging.

While wolves have persisted for eons in undeveloped landscapes from the wilds of Canada and Alaska to the vast primitive-societal landscapes of Asia; the re-introduction, protection and spread of wolves in Europe and The Lower 48 States of the US in recent decades has precipitated disagreements and political chaos of enormous proportions. National politicians in Europe and the US have partnered with environmental and animal rights organizations representing mainly urban voters and environmental specialist-scientists to enact laws and regulations responsible for the current situation. Opponents of such laws and programs are mainly rural livestock producers, dog owners, hunters, parents, grandparents, the rural poor and an assortment of rural recreationists and rural amateur naturalists from mushroom and berry pickers to plant and rock collectors.

According to the IUCN, wolves currently inhabit 4 continents. They occur in contiguous populations from the uncounted hundreds of thousands (to millions?) in Asia to the Canada/Alaska population estimated to be approaching one hundred thousand. While these populations “spill” into Europe and The Lower 48 US states naturally and periodically; national (federal) US government laws and European (Union) government laws have been passed to forcibly reintroduce and protect wolves throughout their (the wolves) “original” range regardless of the adverse impacts. The rationale for this is that “native” species “belong” wherever they once existed. It is inconceivable to say with a straight face that wolves are “endangered”. Until this very recent change in American and European governance and human/animal legal concepts, such a decision would have been based primarily on the interests of humans and been the sole concern of the governments of individual European Countries or individual American States. This is no longer the case: as wolves demonstrate the growing political construct that human interests are secondary to the animal/environmental statements and beliefs of those controlling increasingly powerful central governments. European Countries and US States have become subservient to Washington, Brussels and the UN. It goes without saying that this phenomenon is steadily incorporating more and more animal and plant species under the international/central government umbrellas and that this has, in turn, made the redress of problems (safety, livestock losses, loss of hunting opportunity, dog losses, property losses, human health, etc.) of rural people associated with mandated and protected species such as wolves, exponentially more difficult to obtain from far-away governments that are more beholden to far-away political factions, a multitude of hidden agendas, and financial support from environmental radicals than to the redress of the concerns of rural communities.

Wolves are members of an animal group called Canids. Canids include wolves, coyotes, domestic dogs, jackals and dingos. All of these animals can and do interbreed to produce viable (fully reproducing-capable) offspring the same as humans of different races, different physiology, and different social habits; or dogs of different breeds. Additionally, wolves, like other mammals, are larger in Northern latitudes; lighter-colored in desert habitats; omnivorous in that they eat any meat (wild or domestic); capable of very different behavior in uninhabited areas or settled landscapes, or when hunted, or even close to human habitations like outer suburbs near St. Petersburg or Moscow. In truth, wolf behaviors, wolf sizes and colors, wolf DNA and the many documented dangers and harms they present to humans are varied just like their fellow Canids as seen in smaller western US coyotes v. larger Eastern US coyotes or in the varieties of dog sizes, colors, and behavior differences (i.e. pit bull v. basset hound or Chinese hairless v. Irish Wolfhound) with which most people are familiar. Dingos and jackals tend to be far more uniform in size, color and behavior in large part due to their long-standing isolation from wolves, coyotes and free-roaming dogs. Within this group (Canids) of mammals, it is fair to ask and debate just what is a species, and what is it that is so unique or special that government intervention is called for or warranted for an animal that could be identified as a wolf or a coyote/wolf hybrid or a wolf/dog hybrid or a wolf/coyote/dog hybrid depending of the hubris of government law enforcers and the responsiveness of their DNA-Analyst contractors that make such determinations depending on who has specified the DNA Standards? The very real possibility that wolf protection and spread into settled landscapes where coyotes and especially dogs are abundant and ubiquitous may be resulting in the genetic extinction of wolves as we have known them and that we are witnessing the evolution of a sort-of semi-wild coyote/wolf wild dog that capitalizes on all the settled landscape’ adaptive habits of the three to the even greater detriment to rural human society: this subject is never mentioned, broached or respected. What is a hybrid? What do hybrids portend?

Wolves have been and are a documented danger to humans, especially when they become habituated to human communities and particularly regarding children and the elderly. Written accounts of these dangers extend all the way back to Greek and Roman writers before the time of Christ. European and North American history have copious reports of deaths and injuries to humans despite poor record-keeping, spotty reporting and unsolved disappearances in sparsely-settled landscapes of early European and early American settlement and development periods. Russian current events still mention a steady stream of wolf attacks on humans causing deaths and serious injuries and infections of victims from rabid wolves (one such wolf just seriously injured six Indian villagers in the Panchmahal District as I am writing this) and recent attacks on old Russian lady shepherds; and even a Russian sawyer actually running his chainsaw and over 20 others bitten by one rabid wolf in recent years are typical!. An Alaskan report of a recent 32-year period regarding wolf attacks, called human/wolf interactions, described 80 such incidents in Alaska and Canada. In the past decade a healthy young man going for a walk near a rural mining community was killed by wolves in Saskatchewan, a young woman (teacher while jogging) was killed by wolves in Alaska and a young woman hiker was killed by several coyotes in an Eastern Canadian Park in just the past decade. Only last summer a young camper was attacked during the night by a wolf in a federal Minnesota campground only weeks after I was fishing right near that campground. When a wolf was killed, it was said to be the one that attacked but that he only attacked because he was “suffering from a deformed brain”. Most likely it was primarily because public awareness and understanding of similar human dangers from wolves in bygone times that so much time, wealth and effort was diverted from other vital functions by Europeans in the last millennium and European settlers in North America to exterminate wolves in areas that were being settled or were intended to be settled by farmers, shepherds, ranchers and others interested primarily in safe and productive communities, and peaceful home environments for their families. When livestock losses, big game animal losses, dog losses and disease dangers were also considered; evidently no effort was considered too great by our forefathers and their families.

Wolves transmit diseases and infections that are deadly or debilitating to people, cattle, sheep, dogs and other wild and domestic animals. These include but are not limited to Rabies, Brucellosis, Encephalitis, Anthrax, Smallpox, Mad Cow Disease, Chronic Wasting Disease, Distemper, Neospora caninum (causes abortions), 2 types of Mange, GID (a disease of wild and domestic sheep), Foot-and-Mouth, Heartworm and Parvo. Wolves carry a wide range of Ticks and Fleas that they pick up as they wander far and wide encountering all manner of other animals with wide varieties of ticks and fleas. The Ticks they carry can transmit; Anemia, Dermatosis, Tick Paralysis, Babesiosis, Anaplasmosis, Erlichia, E. Coast Fever, Relapsing Fever, Rocky Mtn. Spotted Fever and Lyme Disease. The Fleas they carry can transmit; Plague, Bubonic Plague. Pneumonic Plague and Flea-Borne Typhus. Additionally, wolves carry and spread the infectious and dangerous eggs of Tapeworms (Echinococcus granulosis and multilocularis) that they deposit in the area around their feces in parks, campgrounds, rural yards, playgrounds, trails and other areas where the eggs remain viable for months to be picked up by grazing animals feeding on plants, curious dogs, and children and adults on fingers, paws, tongues dropped food and shoes to be brought into homes where they reside for small children to pick up from rugs and floors. The resulting cysts in vital organs can kill or debilitate humans while also debilitating other animals like moose, elk and livestock, thereby making them less agile and strong and thus even more vulnerable to wolf predation.

Wolves kill and eat coyotes and dogs (herding, hunting, watchdogs, pets; i.e. all dogs) routinely. They will also mate with or be mated by coyotes or dogs when estrus and opportunity present themselves, leaving the female to whelp the mixed litter either back at some barn or in a den at some remote location.

Wolves kill and eat calves, cows, steers, lambs, sheep, and other livestock. They harass the herds and flocks such that the livestock loses weight, fails to put on weight, reduces reproduction and behave in ways that increase problems, time investments and costs for owners and their employees as well as consumers. The results are evident in the US in herd reductions, grazing allotment closures, ranch sales and local community losses of taxes and economic activity. In Europe the losses of sheep and shepherding activity continues to grow while the loss of grazing land utilization and the costs to owners reportedly are not only economic but also include harms to their mental health and their families.

Wolves reduce big game herds and thereby hunting opportunity; and thereby hunting revenue for wildlife conservation and management; and thereby government management and protection of the fish and wildlife resources for people of growing areas of The Lower 48 States and European Countries where wolves are becoming more numerous and their populations more dense. World-famous elk and moose populations in Idaho and Montana have seen steep declines. Moose in Minnesota have declined as wolves have increased such that they are no longer numerous enough to be hunted. Elk, moose and deer all decline and often most precipitously in a few short years of the arrival of uncontrolled wolves. Fawns and calves of these species along with pregnant females are particularly vulnerable and highly preferred by wolves. Not only do wolves learn quickly how and where to find them, like pregnant cows and newborn young, wolves often disable the female only to eat out her rear-end to pull out and eat the highly-desired fawn or calf she is carrying, leaving her to die a lingering death. It does not take many years of this to notice severe declines in numbers of these animals just as any countries’ human population that falls below replacement and necessary reproduction/morbidity numbers and ratios can attest. Unlike the various wildlife studies based on remote areas and uninhabited islands that infer a reputed balance between wolves and their prey such that wolves decrease after they reduce their prey animals and then plants like willows increase as wolf prey are reduced and then the prey species once again increase due to increased food and reduced wolf numbers to be followed by an increase in wolves as the prey increase in numbers and availability: the realities are that in a settled landscape when the prey (elk, deer, moose, etc.) decrease (and animal owners pen up smaller herds) the wolves adopt new techniques and determination to get at the livestock plus they shift to killing more pets and like North American coyotes learn to eat garbage and other items in yards and suburbs during the night. Confrontations between kids taking out garbage, moms walking the family pet dog or elderly folks walking to mailboxes will naturally increase and the probability of fateful encounters will increase accordingly. No one asks, discusses or defends a certain death or injury rate or numbers to humans that is “worth” living with wolves. Wolves, dogs (domestic and free-roaming) and coyotes are all smart and adaptive omnivores and the expectation that when they reduce their wild prey base they will quietly decline in numbers when other options are available, is foolish. Public comments about this particular phenomenon in recent years reveal a widespread reveling and exuberant celebrations by environmental/animal rights persons and their organization that the wolves are steadily eliminating hunting, grazing by domestic animals and rural economic health as goals to be applauded far more than the reputed shifts in wild animal presence and numbers associated with wolves. Some consider this the true or primary hidden agenda driving wolf spreading and protection by government fiats.

Wolves, more than free-roaming dogs or coyotes are notoriously hard to hunt. They quickly turn nocturnal and secretive when pressed. They do not come to bait or calls consistently. Historically, when severe controls were desired, guns, traps, snares, M-44’s (scented ball that triggers a poison shell into the animal’s mouth), poisons, denning (killing pups in the den), dogs, aerial gunning (especially on snow) and many more things were employed. When it was agreed that extermination was necessary, all of these were used and even possees (local militias of law-abiding citizens enlisted to hunt down and catch dangerous criminals and, yes, even wolves) were formed where men rode for weeks hunting down the last wolves over large areas or in the case of an island like Ireland, special, large and fierce dogs were bred and maintained to run down and kill remaining wolves.

Since wolves move stealthily over large areas in a non-routine, haphazard manner; consistent and accurate censuses year after year for comparisons or trend analyses are impossible. This fact combined with self-serving government agendas that quite often excuse game disappearances as climate change, behavioral anomalies or undiagnosed diseases often create year-to-year wolf population estimates apparently driven more by the political and public relations agendas of bureaucrats, lobbyists and politicians than reality.

Wolf supporters and bureaucrats are largely determined to oppose not only methods (trapping, snares, dogs, poisons, aerial gunning, denning, etc.) of wolf control: they are constantly seeking donations, suing and lobbying to prevent any controls. While initial hunting programs, at best, have taken no more than 10-15% of wolf populations annually, such annual takes have negligible effects on either wolf population growth or on wolf behavior. Ironically, it is actually the sort of game harvest percentages meant to spur production in both birds and mammals as fewer animals are sent into the winter to share available food and thus guaranteeing healthier and more numerous reaching spring more capable of raising more and larger litters. To reduce a dense wolf population usually requires a 45-70% or more per year reduction for 5-7 years or more and then a 30% reduction or more per year ever-after. This necessarily ignores the lessened impacts of such controls when conducted in a patchwork fashion considering CLOSED private property, restricted government enclaves and neighboring jurisdictions where controls are prohibited and are thus continually providing a constant inflow from burgeoning wolf populations in such nearby unmanaged (for wolves) areas. Effective control harvests are impossible today in both The Lower 48 US States and European wolf areas due to fierce opposition, government indifference and lack of an understood public rationale for such harvests because the inevitable public outcry for such controls is only beginning to grow and it must overcome decades of lies and propaganda. As public realization and understanding of the intolerable harms caused by wolves in settled landscapes grows, the same human/wolf incidents as were documented in our ancestors’ communities caused by historic wolf problems and that spurred our forefathers to expend the scarce time and treasure to take drastic, long-term measures to the point of exterminating wolves are sure to result even in our modern technology-masters-all society as human casualties and damages mount and are no longer deniable..

All of the foregoing wolf reality is arrayed against:

-Scientists that claim that wolves do not reduce game populations or livestock and only reproduce slowly due to a reluctance to breed by submissive wolves, a phenomenon that curiously does not exist in either dogs or coyotes.

-School teachers repeatedly telling young students those wolves are necessary, good and of no danger to anyone who behaves correctly.

-Media agendas that ignore wolf harms, publish wolf public-relations articles as “science”, and marginalize negative wolf reports and people that live with and are affected by wolves.

-Bureaucrats that promise ranchers and sheep herders compensation, then call depredation losses everything but wolf-caused and quickly run out of scarce dollars as the wolves get established and compensation for wolf damage is shown to have the priority and support of government research into plastic surgery for animals for governments awash in debt and crumbling infrastructure.

-Bureaucrats and politicians that tell the Countries and States under them that once the wolves are established be central government fiat, the Countries, States and Local Communities are responsible for maintaining certain numbers (despite their being difficult to accurately count) or else the higher government will step back in and be ruthless about reaching and maintaining those levels.

-A fantasy being presented worldwide as fact, that what plants and animals were once on this or that piece of ground 200, 500, 1,000, 2,000 years ago should or must be on that ground once again. No matter that human settlement, development and change of the landscape, weather, and present-day human activities in all their changing and beneficial complexity have made that piece of ground no more hospitable to or suitable for uncontrolled species like wolves than for free-ranging elephants or bison (wisent) or grizzly bears. NOTE, just this morning I read in The India Times that free-roaming bison (Asian Water Buffalo) have killed seven rural Indians in separate incidents in just the past 12 months; and only last week a lady In Montana asked me to provide her comments regarding a UWS federal/state proposal to establish free-roaming buffalo (bison) herds in the farmland/pasturelands of central Montana. A similar federal program to forcibly protect and spread grizzly bears that are killing livestock as well as killing and injuring people in the NW US is also underway as I write.

-A gaggle of hidden agendas from bureaucrats seeking more authority, budget, and personnel; and scientists seeking more grants, tenure, and recognition: to organizations working to eliminate hunting, eliminate grazing, and rural populations; and groups seeking rights for animals, significantly reduced human populations worldwide and an end to all animal utilization by humans.

The airwaves, newspapers and classrooms are crowded today with stories of:

-The importance of apex predators.

-The need to restore the rural environment.

-The need for and legitimacy of forcible clearance of rural precincts.

-The importance of the native ecosystem and native species.

-The harmful environmental effects of rural people, rural practices and excess humans.

-The need for Washington, Brussels and the UN to have more money and more authority.

– Hunters, grazers, loggers, and most rural residents being both ignorant and bent on destroying the environment, the ecosystem and life as we know it unless ruled minutely and ruthlessly.

All this goes on as:

– Wolves are having growing impacts on European sheep flocks, shepherds, rural areas and rural residents as wolf numbers and densities grow in Italy, Germany, France, and Spain.

– Expanding wolf populations in Finland, Sweden and Norway are decreasing big game numbers and creating all manner of livestock and human safety concerns.

– British and Scottish environmentalists, politicians and University biologists are working to introduce wolves into Scotland.

– Dense and uncontrolled wolf populations in Russia and many former Eastern Bloc Countries supply an endless flow of wolves into Eastern and Central European Countries from Lithuania and Finland to Hungary, Slovenia and Italy.

– European Union politicians, bureaucrats and environmental/animal rights’ lobbyists resist authorizing any actions by shepherds, rural residents concerned about safety and health threats, hunters, dog owners and other rural Europeans to control wolves or to employ active protections for their families, livelihoods and property being killed and threatened by wolves.

– European Union administrators are basically opposed to authorizing any increased gun use by rural Europeans and use of devices like traps and snares.

– Likewise, EU administrators resist bear depredation controls in places like Finland where robust bear populations, supplemented by Russian bears that expand into Finland from uncontrolled and constantly expanding and scattering bear populations.

– All of the above are either ignored by or supported by urban Europeans that, like their urban American and Canadian cousins, are evolving to be indifferent to rural harms and problems.

– More federal kennel-raised wolves are being released in Arizona despite strong local objections.

– Minnesota wolves that have decimated the state’s moose population (and hunting) and are currently decreasing the deer population are the subject of a lawsuit to bar any hunting or trapping of wolves (ironically, despite the stimulative effect of the small potential harvest on the very dense and robust wolf population.)

– Idaho is trying to fund a statewide initiative with tax dollars to reduce the wolves that have decimated moose and elk hunting (and numbers, license revenue and associated dollars generated by big game hunting). What the long-term controls and funding sources portend is anyone’s guess.

– As Washington State and Oregon State have begun hosting resident wolf packs from neighboring Idaho, ranchers have been cajoled into accepting “compensation” for livestock losses to wolves that is underfunded and as likely to continue being available as is are liquor allowances for a legislature. Simultaneously the state bureaucrats tell the public wolf numbers are curiously steady in this new food-rich habitat and that decreasing elk and moose harvests and licenses are only temporary and due to everything imaginable Except Wolves.

– Wolves from Great Lakes States are scattering into Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri and Ohio where federal and state laws jeopardize any hunter or control agent that kills what he thought was a coyote or free-roaming dog and some post-facto government DNA Analyst declares is a wolf. Similarly in the West, Rocky Mountain States’ Wolves from introduced stock are scattering into California, Nevada, Utah, Nebraska, and the Dakotas to hospitable habitats.

– As Texas refused vigorously to accept federal wolves (like Wyoming did successfully), federal thugs have “worked with” (i.e. funded) wolf releases in N Mexico just S of the Rio Grande River across from Texas.

– US federal bureaucrats have made much of “Returning Management of (Restored) ‘Endangered’ Wolves to State Governments” in states like Minnesota, Idaho and Montana. First, wolves were never “endangered” other than under the Endangered Species Act’s politically-driven agendas. Second, this fictional “Return” is in reality a move to make states finance all the wolf problems with both state wildlife funds (to divert them from hunting programs) and from state tax dollars where their future looks like the future of continued state funding for free barbershops for politicians. The kicker is that, if the state lets the wolf numbers go below some set level (how do you know, how to prove, especially in court?), the federal government will step back in and seize protection of the wolves. All the while those opposed to wolf control or hunting or trapping or snaring or aerial shooting, etc. of wolves go into federal courts and help federal bureaucrats modify regulations to obtain key federal court rulings to expand and solidify federal authorities and jurisdictions over the wolves “Under State Authority”.

– US State fish and wildlife bureaucrats increasingly view themselves as extensions of federal bureaucrats, federal programs and federal funding while they increasingly disregard any responsibility to the state residents that employ them. This makes redress of rural complaints and problems more difficult as the federal bureaucrats set the rules for all actions by co-opting state bureaucrats and manipulating federal courts by working with select “partners and stakeholders” by designation of friendly federal courts and federal judges presented with jointly-designed (by bureaucrats and radicals) lawsuits. The flow of all federal US tax dollars makes many state politicians and big city politicians (and their employees) behave the same as the fish and wildlife bureaucrats, thus further marginalizing rural people and their concerns.

– Gun control is a large aspect of living with wolves that is exacerbating problems. European and Canadian laws and habits opposed to handguns make consistent availability of a gun for unexpected wolf confrontations from dog walkers encountering wolves and wolves encountered in close quarters like barns or fenced yards, to shepherds encountering wolves depredating at unexpected times and in unexpected places; difficult to say the least. European laws and customs extend to areas where, as in Russia, any gun possession or ammunition availability is only made by special and narrow government dispensation. US federal politicians, although they take an oath to uphold the US Constitution stating “the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.” are on an undisguised rampage to violate the Constitution in this regard and regulate and then ban over time handguns, military-looking rifles, all rifles, clips, magazines and shotguns to the cheers of urban politicians that blame all of the US’ urban woes on guns. This, like wolf protection and spread is applauded by urban voters and political donors. The bottom line here is that real wolf control, real and consistent wolf management, control of wolf depredations, dealing with dangerous wolf habituations (homes, schools, bus stops, etc.), and protection in the case of wolf incidents from rabies to an outright attack is both disappearing and increasingly only done by government officials, if at all. This not only is after-the-fact and expensive, actual wolf control is made unachievable and impractical over time and the future of rural people doomed to live with wolves is steadily becoming neither pretty nor bright.

Scientific papers, lawsuit arguments, media propaganda and government pronouncements are rife with statements and questions like:

– When is a wolf a coyote? Who established DNA Standards?

– Is the wolf trapped far away and released by government THE actual wolf that once inhabited (fill-in-the-blank)?

– Any wolf attack on a human is “abnormal”.

– People must learn to “live” with wolves.

– Maybe the cattle and/or sheep don’t “belong” out there.

– Wolves were here first.

– Wolves control prey species while regulated hunting doesn’t.

– Wolves are good and beneficial. Hunting is bad and harmful.

– Hunting should be outlawed just like grazing and logging.

– People should keep their pets and kids inside and watch them closely when they are outside.

– Rural areas are too heavily populated and their natural resource uses and demands are destroying the ecosystem.

– Wolf hunting destroys the wolves’ social structure and their reproductive capabilities.

– Only alpha wolves mate.

– Wolves don’t decimate big game populations and wolf depredations on livestock are vastly overrated by rural people looking for government handouts.

– Plant communities blossom, like semi-arid valleys after a thunderstorm, when wolves kill ungulates and also cause them to “behave” differently.

– Wolves are the “apex” predators that are leading the way to the total restoration of native species in a native ecosystem.

– Wolves should be maintained with hunting program funds but they should not be hunted, trapped or controlled.

– Those that do not understand “ecosystems”, “trophic cascades” and “natural processes and cycles” are like climate change deniers and should be similarly marginalized and denied any part in things they do not grasp.

So what? It is the Law! What do you want to do, kill all the wolves? All these statements and more are constantly thrown at anyone addressing this issue. So here is what must be done.

First a word of caution. Speaking candidly about this is like talking to many of my relatives that have grown indifferent to or rabidly opposed to the religion of our forefathers, while I have not. I say this not to compare you to any of my relatives but to note that ANY discussion of any topic involving moral dimensions or basic values is quickly treated by such a relative as a disguised attempt on my part to “bring them back” or “convert them”. As I describe the following solution, some will be hearing me trying to tell you how to vote or how to think. I apologize beforehand but YOU must think through that and consider what I am about to say if you are to have ANY hope of resolving the wolf issue before us.

THE BASIC PROBLEM is that very powerful central governments and international “Bodies” now control all wild plants and animals. Don’t try to argue,”oh our state still manages fishing”, or birds or oak trees. The facts are that what Brussels and Washington have done with wolves and what they plus Toronto have done with United Nations’ Treaties and Conventions is to set precedents and a roadmap to seizing any and all wild plant and animal jurisdiction and authority when it suits their purposes. Conventions on Trade in Wildlife, Wetlands of International Significance, Marine Mammal Compacts, Endangered claims in courts, Native Species claims in courts, Invasive Species claims in courts, Animal Welfare claims in court and Central Government Legislation and UN Treaty Negotiations that would have been unbelievable 50 years ago have all been incremental moves giving these central authorities all of the jurisdiction and authority over the wolf debacle we are faced with today.

While we bemoan the injustice and perfidy of government wolf actions; as I write the US government is trying to similarly force free-roaming buffalo herds into Montana (where the federal wolves were first released) and into the Arizona/Utah borderlands N of the Grand Canyon on a mix of federal and Indian lands from which they would spread much like the federal wolf release on an Idaho Indian Reservation. This morning’s news featured the arrest of a Nevada rancher for taking pictures from a state road of federal resource enforcers seizing his cattle herd while dressed as snipers with sniper scopes on their rifles and police dogs that attacked the rancher when he failed to get back in his legally parked vehicle. These are the “idealistic” “environmental workers” you deal with concerning wolves and will be dealing with when buffalo once again “roam, where the deer and the antelope play.”

Now the following is all-US oriented, although I think I have a good grasp of Canadian and European governments I hesitate to write as if I do for the certainty that some innocent mistake on my part would create a world of misunderstanding. Therefore the following applies equally to Europeans and Canadians in large and small measure and are presented only as ideas about how to fix what we agree is wrong.

Whether you believe that all wild plants band animals were once under the authority of lesser levels of governments or if you believe that wild plants have never been under lesser levels of governments: JURISDICTION AND AUTHORITY OVER ALL WILD PLANTS AND ANIMALS, should always be, first and foremost and permanently if at all possible UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE LOWEST AND MOST RESPONSIVE (to human needs) LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT. This is called the principle of subsidiarity. It sets limits on state intervention. It aims at harmonizing the relationships between individuals and societies and tends toward the establishment of true international order. There is no argument that the current “top-down”, “central government rules-all” system divides rural and urban societies and establishes an international order that is little more than a process whereby dictatorial (the proper word) governments issue orders to be obeyed by all at the behest of whatever faction controls such government or is financing it.

Think of all the “is it a hybrid”, or “we really have two thousand, six hundred and seventy-two wolves”, or “see the wolves REALLY DID kill all the moose”, or the “video camera shows that the young boy caused the attack by his improper behavior in trying to run away” arguments in courts or in newspaper articles or in Letters and meetings with Legislators and Bureaucrats as simply blows back and forth during a boxing match wherein the judges are relatives of the guy you are up against. As long as the REAL POWER remains at the central or HIGHEST level of government, they can simply change the rules or the law and even when you feel you “won” something, the next time your opponents get “their” guys elected they can – and will – pass a new law or write a new regulation that either delegitimizes your “victory” or makes it worthless as they simply check it and move into other items like restoring “Pre-Roman” plants and animals or releasing lions or hyenas since they “once inhabited” (have YOUR archeologist fill-in this blank.)

In the US, this means positioning or re-positioning all authority and jurisdiction over wild plants and animals at the COUNTY (and not even the State) level. Certainly species like Marine Mammals and Certain Migratory Birds could be placed at the federal level for reasons of Interstate Commerce, Hunting and Management of movable stocks and flocks and legitimate common interests with foreign powers who share in the benefits and presence of such animals. Likewise, an effective federal authority should be established to prevent harmful plants and animals from being imported into the US as contrasted with the current system wherein the federal law enforcers are equipped and trained as military fighters to raid guitar stores and farmyards while ignoring the importation of Asian carp that destroy our rivers and pythons and boa constrictors that are only beginning to wreak untold havoc in southern states.

County politicians and County employees are closest to, neighbors of, and liable to voter wrath of ANY (State, City, and Federal) level of government. The US government was conceived to authorize a federal government with very specific powers to protect state governments that represented and protected the County governments THAT REPRESENTED AND PROTECTED THE COMMUNITIES AND FAMILIES THAT MADE UP THE NATION. This lowest level, the County, and NOT the highest level, the federal, is where the rubber meets the road regarding whether some or how many wolves should prey on domestic animals or kill dogs or eliminate hunting or eliminate big game, or spread disease, or pay “compensation” for some or any of the property that wolves destroy. This is why what is perhaps our most important County official, OUR Sheriff, is most often the official on the citizen’s side when federal snipers, attack dogs, numbers and lawlessness are employed to evict an old woman from her home that a Park bureaucrats wants, or when federal enforcers seize livestock and other property from those they want to intimidate or take from.

Many US States, like US Senators (2 from each state) have assumed this urban-preference/rural-dismissal bias as a result of powerful urban donors and numerous voters that keep them in office. Issues like wolves are simply “throw-away” crumbs to urban voters for continued or increased support. It is for reasons like that, that I recommend that state governments be re-oriented to protecting what Local (County) governments and their residents want for their own County. If they want more elk and moose, then state government works in that regards and if they want wolves and no hunting or livestock or dogs, so be it. If neighboring jurisdictions refuse to control wolves, let those that would have no wolves set the fate of any wolf seen anywhere in the County at any moment. Counties would be more cautious about spending money and therefore County Ordinances that employed landowners and residents with leeway to take action, orders to landowners refusing to control wolves on their land with charges and liens for the County to employ a contractor to take needed action. County governments with teeth would make these federal/state buffalo ventures a thing of the past in any settled-landscape County where residents agreed “not-in-my County.” As part and parcel of this repositioning of jurisdiction and authority is a resurrection of the abandoned legal notion that somehow when federal agents with federal tax dollars buy or ease property IN ANY COUNTY, that somehow transforms the property into some fairyland as far from the County as the Falkland Islands. This pernicious notion has fostered the arrogance of federal land managers that they have NO responsibility toward local communities or local governments as well as their bureaucrat overseers in Washington in the regulations they write or the laws they help Congressional staff personnel write for their bosses to support the court cases they help the environmentalists to file in certain courts known to provide reliable (to them) decisions and precedents for the future.

So, what do I mean when I say “re-orient” government jurisdiction and authority?

– Elect strong and committed County officials.

– Support County officials in what they do.

– Choose strong County officials to support for State offices.

– Choose strong and proven State officials for federal offices.

– Return selection of US Senators to state legislatures.

– Elect Governors that think, act and make your state their foremost concern.

– Repeal and amend the federal laws that underpin wolf/grizzly bear/buffalo tyranny.

– Enact local animal control and management programs for local communities.

– Reduce federal and state tax rates (reflecting reduced responsibilities) and enact local tax structures to cover LOCAL actions approved by LOCAL taxpayers that can and will vote the likes of current state and federal politicians out of office when they abuse citizens by buying votes and oppressing rural residents as they are doing as I write this.

If this or something like it isn’t adopted, there are only two choices I see ahead. Either we just suck it up and tell our kids and grandkids to move to the city and look for work because rural living is only going to get more inhospitable and less possible, or we change the government structure however we can. If wolves and all this environmental tyranny is really important, it is like Finland deciding to reject the overtures of a foreign power in the 1940’s or Ukraine deciding that recently rejecting EU or NATO overtures was not where they wanted to go, or Americans deciding that Prohibition (of alcohol) was neither tolerable or American. This environmental animal tyranny is no different in the settled landscapes of Europe or Canada or The Lower 48 States. There is no solution for such an effort run by far-off, all-powerful governments beholden to political factions committed to the destruction of rural people, their culture, their traditions, their families, and their very ways of life: no solution but one, put the power to create these situations with THOSE AFFECTED by the actions.

Anything else is either a placebo or a sleeping pill meant to put you to sleep until it is all over.

Jim Beers
8 April 2014

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Jim Beers is a retired US Fish & Wildlife Service Wildlife Biologist, Special Agent, Refuge Manager, Wetlands Biologist, and Congressional Fellow. He was stationed in North Dakota, Minnesota, Nebraska, New York City, and Washington DC. He also served as a US Navy Line Officer in the western Pacific and on Adak, Alaska in the Aleutian Islands. He has worked for the Utah Fish & Game, Minneapolis Police Department, and as a Security Supervisor in Washington, DC. He testified three times before Congress; twice regarding the theft by the US Fish & Wildlife Service of $45 to 60 Million from State fish and wildlife funds and once in opposition to expanding Federal Invasive Species authority. He resides in Eagan, Minnesota with his wife of many decades.

Jim Beers is available to speak or for consulting. You can receive future articles by sending a request with your e-mail address to: jimbeers7@comcast.net

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