January 18, 2022

The Call to Protect Hybrid Wild Canines Across the U.S.

*Editor’s Note* – This article makes claims about a “New York State Museum” study that showed that eight wild canines that had been living in the Northeast were “wild.” Unfortunately, what is not discussed here, which is just as important, if not more so, is that no testing was done on these animals, in this study, to determine taxanomy, i.e. as to whether or not these animals are or were some kind of hybrid.

Other reports have repeatedly said that the wild canines being found in all of the northeast part of the U.S. and most all of the eastern half of the country are hybrid/mixes. Therefore, the bigger question should become why should we be trying to protect hybrid species, which is a violation of the Endangered Species Act?

“Environmental organizations are fighting efforts to take the gray wolf off the federal endangered species list, thinking it could some day return to the Adirondacks.

Though perhaps it already has.

In December 2001, a hunter in the northern Saratoga County town of Day killed what he thought was a coyote but was later determined to be a wolf — the first confirmed wolf killing in the Adirondacks in more than 100 years.

A decade later, a New York State Museum study proved through bone analysis of its diet that the wolf was wild, not a former pet or captive turned loose or escaped. Most likely, the young male had crossed the St. Lawrence River from Ontario.

Regardless of where that one came from, the Adirondack Park’s rural communities are full of folks who believe wolves live out in the deep woods.

“There’s certainly anecdotal evidence of wolves being seen in the Adirondacks,” said Dan Plumley of Adirondack Wild, who has photographed possible wolf tracks on his property in Keene.<<<Read More>>>

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N.C. Red Wolf Program “Disastrous, Irresponsible Farce”

“The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service told me there were no wolves on my property and an accidental killing would not be considered a crime. Not wanting to kill a wolf or to have a judge determine if it was an accident, I decided to trap my farm with a private trapper. During the first five days of trapping (which began Jan. 21), three wolves and two hybrids were caught on my farm that “had no wolves.” It was at this point that USFWS realized they did not know where or how many wolves they had and found it necessary to grant the ‘take permit’ because they were unable to remove the unwanted wolves. This is what the law said and this is what they did. Simple enough.

Over a 30-day trapping period in January and February, 18 canines were caught. Four were red wolves. 13 were hybrids/coyotes. One was unidentified. All canines were held until USFWS red wolf biologists could identify the animals with one exception.”<<<Read More>>>

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Fawn Killing Wolf/Coyote Hybrid Found in South Carolina

“The coyote/wolf hybrid that scares deer hunters throughout South Carolina has been found at the Savannah River Site by U.S. Forestry Service personnel doing a fawn mortality rate study, officials said last week.

According to Charles Ruth, with the state Department of Natural Resources, fawn mortality at the SRS was found to be 70 percent, much higher than previously thought, and of that higher rate, 80 percent was found to be caused by coyotes.

That number, while higher than expected, was not nearly the surprise that a forest service study of coyote DNA that found one coyote/wolf hybrid — a coyote with Canadian grey wolf DNA, said John Kilgo, a research biologist with the forest service.”<<<Read More>>>

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Serious Problem: Wild Dog/Domestic Dog Cross Breeding

“Many dog and wolf experts warn against owning or breeding wolf-dog hybrids. While dogs and wolves share much of the same genetic makeup, the small differences between the two that have emerged since the two species diverged some 14,000 years ago are very significant, experts say. They are known to have none of the natural fear or shyness around humans that wild wolves have, yet retain wolves’ powerful prey drive and do not respond to training. They also have strong territorial instincts that range for miles beyond their owners’ homes and are adept at climbing over or digging out of enclosures unless fences are 8 feet tall, have inleaning overhangs and concrete trenches around the perimeter.

“To mix a wild animal with a domestic animal doesn’t help either,” said Kent Weber, founder and director of Mission Wolf, a rescue organization in Colorado. “These end up being very confused animals, and most of them end up dead.”

He estimated there are about 250,000 wolf-dog hybrids in the United States. Though they are illegal in most states, an Internet search for “wolf dog” shows several sites advertising wolf-dog puppies and breeders.”<<<Read More>>>

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Wolves – Once A Mongrel Always A Mongrel

Guest post by Toby Bridges:

America is very often referred to as “The Great Melting Pot”, where for more than 500 years the World’s cultures, nationalities and various ethnic groups have continually mixed and blended into a not so outwardly distinct race of humans. Depending on where in this country you study “Americans”, you are bound to see a different people, a continually changing people – and that’s due to the ethnicity of those who primarily settled the different regions originally, along with the more recent influence of other races or nationalities. The face of America has been an ever changing face, since the arrival of more than one human race, whether from Asia, Europe, or Africa.

The same mixing of cultures and ethnic groups is now also taking place around the globe, making many wonder if the human race worldwide will become one and the same by, say, the year 3000. To keep the population of this old Earth fed, practitioners of animal husbandry have also been doing a little “melting” of their own, crossbreeding different livestock subspecies or strains in order to produce cattle, hogs or sheep that are capable of producing more and higher quality meat, or which can survive and thrive in a wider range of climatic conditions.

Nature has also created a few crossbreeds of its own, in the wild. A couple which have now become something of a problem are the wolf-dog, coy-dog and coy-wolf, involving the crossbreeding of wolves, domestic canines and coyotes. In recent times, over the past couple of decades, there has been an accelerated occurrence of such hybrids, often showing up in the most unusual places – and that has many knowledgeable wildlife experts wondering if all this crossbreeding is getting a little help from pro-predator or pro-wolf groups looking to speed up the rewilding of Earth.

One such occurrence took place in southern Indiana in 2008, near the small town of Gatchel, less than 40 miles due west of Louisville, Kentucky. A rural resident’s dog was attacked by “wolf-like” creatures, and an Indiana Department of Natural Resources officer was dispatched to investigate. While he was there, five of the animals returned – and all five were killed. Channel 14 News, an NBC affiliate located in nearby Evanston, IN aired a report on the attack, and the killing of the “wolf-like” animals. The news caster commented that the animals were, “Currently being tested to see if they are wolves or a hybrid mix.”

But, were they tested?

A few months after that incident, wolf researcher Will Graves, the author of the book “Wolves in Russia – Anxiety Through the Ages” and co-author of the new book “The Real Wolf”, tried to do a follow up on the killing of these five “wolf-like” canines…and it was like the incident never happened. He called the local police department, and could not find anyone who knew anything about what had occurred. Several inquiries were also made with the Indiana Department of Natural Resources and with the state Department of Health. The only thing learned was that the conservation officer who appeared on the newscast no longer worked for the Indiana DNR. All the secrecy surrounding the attack raises questions about why it has been covered up.
(The news clip can be seen at – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tRGDvPVaTIc )

During the past five or six years, “wolves” have been shot and killed in Ohio, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky and Nebraska. The state wildlife agencies in those states, as well as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, claim that these “wolves” walked down on their own from northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, and northern Michigan – where as many as 5,000 to 6,000 wolves can be found.

But…Did they really?

“Wolf-like” wild canines are now showing up in places like Pennsylvania and Maryland. Claims have been made that these are “coy-wolves”, a cross between coyotes and grey wolves, but such claims only raise even more suspicions. If the 100+ pound hybrids are indeed a cross between coyotes and wolves… “Where did the wolves come from?”

Across the United States there are dozens of so-called “Wolf Parks” or “Wolf Centers”, and dozens more captive wolf breeding facilities. Since the federal government must authorize all such facilities, and those wolves must be accounted for, the number of known “pure bred” wolves in captivity is somewhere around 1,500. However, it is suspected that the number of unknown “pure bred” wolves kept in captivity in this country is much greater. There are also an estimated 300,000 to 400,000 wolf-dog hybrids in America. So, it’s more than a good guess or a good bet that the opportunity for overzealous pro-wolf individuals or groups to do a little wolf transplanting of their own has already been well exercised.

One very real problem arises from such illegal dumping of purposely bred wolf-dog hybrids, or for that matter real wolves of an unknown subspecies, into the wild – and that is the loss of true or pure strain wolves in the wild. Right now, the biggest threat to maintaining the genetic purity of wolves in this country are the people who proclaim they love wolves the most. In many parts of North America, all across Europe, and in many regions of Asia, the genetic damage done to wolf populations is already irreversible. Making the matter even worse is that as those compromised wolves continue to expand their range, the greater the degree of hybridization.

Is that the new agenda of pro-wolf groups and new wave wildlife managers? Is it to create one wolf, one hybrid, one “wolf-like” wild canine worldwide?

In the new wolf book. “The Real Wolf”, co-author Ted Lyon devotes an entire chapter to “Canis Stew”, taking a look at the improbability of ever maintaining a population of real wolves in the Lower 48 States. The chapter takes a look at the more than 1,000 mile wandering of the radio collared male wolf known as OR7, which walked down from northeastern Oregon and into northern California, where for the next year it wandered around another 900 miles before returning to Oregon. Researchers felt the male wolf was simply looking for a mate – and finding none, returned back into Oregon.

Lyon points out in the chapter, that had the wolf travelled only a few more miles south, it likely could have found that mate. Not with another “true wolf”, but with wolf-dog hybrids that had become a problem, and were killing livestock. There, a USDA Wildlife Control Specialist had been called in to trap what some thought were just overly sized coyotes. What the trapper caught were several animals weighing over 100 pounds, which proved to be wolf-dog hybrids.

So, where did they come from?

“The Real Wolf” shares, “The trapper said that, during the last 10 years, he had trapped several dozen similar animals. He said that people who grow marijuana prefer to use wolf dogs for guard dogs and that there is evidence that some people in northern California are raising and releasing wolves and wolf dogs to create a California population.”

Could the same thing be happening in southern Indiana, and in other areas around the country?

The Hosier National Forest, which nearly surrounds the area where those five Indiana “wolf-like” canines were killed in 2008, is a known hotbed for the illegal cultivation of marijuana. In 2010, federal and state agents made a $47.5-million dollar pot bust there, most of it being grown on public National Forest lands. Similar large scale growing operations have also been found on public lands throughout the lower Midwest, Midsouth and Southeast. If wolf-dogs are used to guard those grow operations as well, the spread of wild or even semi-wild “wolf-like” canines could be much worse than the American public realizes.

Wolves, coyotes and domestic dogs are all a part of the same genus – Canis. While not a common occurrence in the wild, all are fully capable of interbreeding. Wolves are known to kill and eat coyotes, and there have been many incidents in the Northern Rockies and in the Upper Midwest over the past couple of decades of wolves killing and eating dogs as well. Still, when there is a shortage of available mates, wolves, coyotes and dogs are known to interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Making the situation worse are all of those man induced crosses and hybrids.

Perhaps the most flagrant violator has been the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. To falsely accelerate wolf recovery in the Northern Rockies, that agency purposely transplanted an entirely different, larger and non-endangered subspecies (Canis lupus occidentalis) of wolf right in on top of small pockets of truly endangered and significantly smaller native (Canis lupus irremotus) wolves. That one irresponsible act of wildlife mismanagement either resulted in the larger transplants killing out the smaller native wolf…or the interbreeding of the two, to produce a “true wolf hybrid”.

Ed Bangs, who was the project leader for the Northern Rockies Wolf Recovery Project has even been accused of importing “wolves” from North Central Alberta that were suspected of being Canis lupus occidentalis (grey wolf) and Canis lupus familiaris (sled dog) crosses, or hybrids. One concerned wildlife ecologist took him to task on the claim. Bangs responded by saying if they could survive and reproduce in the wild, he considered them wolves.

Those within the USFWS who have been entrusted with wolf recovery, in accordance with the Endangered Species Act, have further violated wildlife management practices by pen-raising wolf-dog and wolf-coyote crosses and releasing them as Southeastern red wolves (Canis lupus rufus) and as the Mexican grey wolf (Canis lupus baileyi). Both of those projects have been disasters, since the mixed bred transplants continue to look less and less like the “real wolves” they were supposed to be. Between those two failed projects, as much as $50-million of taxpayer dollars have been wasted, and the damage caused by those released mongrels now totals into the hundreds of millions of dollars.

In Europe, wolf hybridization has gotten even more out of hand. The so-called “wolves” now roaming much of the countryside there no longer even look like wolves, or at most only exhibit minor wolf phenotype (appearance). More and more, some wolf biologists throughout what is now known as the European Union are extremely concerned that the acceptance of these animals as wolves is being entirely based on DNA samples. They point out that wolf DNA should be expected when conducting these tests, since domestic dogs are direct descendants of the wolf – both are Canis lupus relatives.

In Finland, one group of more than a dozen hunters organized a hunt to rid a rural farming and livestock rearing community of hybrid wild wolf-dogs that had been attacking livestock. Several of those “wolf-like” canines were killed, and now the pro-wolf movement there has pushed legal action against those hunters – even though the so-called wolves killed looked more like German shepherd dogs than wolves. The hunters now face an upcoming trial, and if found guilty each also faces up to 6 years in prison.

At what point are these hybrids no longer wolves, but rather nothing more than wild dogs?

Wolf hybridization has become a major problem just about everywhere there are wolves, especially the closer the wolves are to human settlements with domestic canines. The jackals of Africa and dingoes of Australia are also beginning to interbreed with domestic dogs. The current hybrid problem is due to the fact that there are now so many domestic dogs in the world, providing the greater opportunity for wild canines and dogs to co-inhabit within somewhat close proximity. That’s especially true where man-created hybrids are allowed to run freely. Over the past several months, an international assembly of respected wolf biologists, wildlife managers, researchers, veterinarians and doctors have formed a new group that will tackle the hybrid problem, mostly to track human and wolf hybrid conflict, such as the legal action against the Finish hunters who were eliminating nothing more than a pack of mongrel wolf-dog hybrids. This same group also intends to become a major international source for wolf science and research. As this is written, the group is so new that it has yet to settle on a name.

Here in America, one real fear among sportsmen, livestock producers and rural residents is that staunch pro-wolf groups will begin to demand full protection of wolf-dog hybrids as well. In a way, the manner in which USFWS has already relied on hybrid crosses, severely compromising the genetic purity of the very questionable wolves released in both the Red Wolf Recovery Project and the Mexican Grey Wolf Project, we’ve already crossed that line of wildlife management ethics. So, where do these wolf recovery wildlife disasters go from here? – Toby Bridges, LOBO WATCH

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Denial and Foolishness of Hybridized Wolves

HybridWolvesDr. Valerius Geist, Will Graves and Dr. Charles Kay are at least three people who warned that forcing wolves into human populated areas was a terrible idea and that attempting to do so would produce countless problems. One of those problems was the uncontrollable threat of cross breeding or hybridization of wolves with other canines, i.e. other hybrids, domestic dogs and yes coyotes.

I’ve been reporting lately of incidences in Europe where wild canine hybrids, labeled as wolves, are being protected by the government. Even an untrained eye can examine photographs of many of these “wolves” and quite easily tell the differences between pure wolves and mutts. Those in Europe are mostly mutts. The truth is there is really no way of stopping it.

Closer to home, wildlife officials in Washington state, had to locate one of their collared laboratory wolves that had gone on a wild fling with a domestic male sheep dog. A report from NBC News said a sheep dog scaled a 7-foot fence to find love in the afternoon.

Biologists learned that a sheep dog climbed a 7-foot-tall fence from its yard near Ione and disappeared with the two female wolves in January and February, when wolves go into heat.

According to reports, officials used a helicopter and tranquilizer guns to drug two female wolves. One wolf had become pregnant from the sheep dog (at least they assume it was the sheep dog. I don’t know if any paternity tests were done.) and the fetuses were aborted. Both wolves were released.

In another report in the Spokesman Review, an official was quoted as saying:

“Our goal is the restoration of a native wolf population, not producing a generation of hybrids we’d have to take care of in another way later.”

And how is it that this “restoration of a native wolf population” is going to not become hybridized? The same officials states:

“If there had been a male wolf in the group, the dog would have been killed instantly.”

Perhaps so, but according to this same official, the two females were alone and thus copulation commenced…..willingly, according to the official. I won’t ask how he knew that.

But consider this. This dog, that evidently caught wind of at least one of those two female wolves in estrus (in heat), climbed a 7-foot tall fence to get in on some action. After all, a dog is a dog is a dog when it comes to breeding in times of estrus. So, if one dog climbed a 7-foot fence how many other dogs not behind fences or chained up are going to sniff opportunity in the wind and successfully mate with other female wolves in estrus with no male wolf to “kill them instantly?”

But let’s turn the role playing around. What is going to happen when a male wolf, not satisfied with the harem he must attend to in the bush, gets wind of Muffy Flanagan’s poodle, Fluffy, going into estrus? If uncaught the offspring becomes wolf hybrid dogs and then what happens?

Geist, Graves and Kay warned hearing impaired officials that trying to reproduce a “native wolf population” near human inhabited areas wasn’t going to work.

As pertains to this story, today Dr. Geist made the following comment:

Well, well, well…What do you know. Ghosts of predictions past! My wife had to quickly slip inside our house when the male wolf confronted her over our German Longhair pointer estrus state. Several male dogs in the neighborhood showed up, but the wolf was the boldest!

How long before we are going to have a forest full of angry and hungry mongrel dogs that some people are still going to demand need protecting? If we follow the lead of what’s happening in Europe, it shouldn’t be too long.

Hang on!

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Wolf Hybrids Impersonating Wolves

The below video is an example of the hybrid wild canines being found all over Europe and being passed off as real wolves. These same hybrids are being protected, even to the point of serious criminal charges being levied against hunters who shot and killed one of these.

Note the coloring, pointed ears, convexly curved forehead, elongated and narrow snout, short legs, short body, and up-curved tail.

In addition, when an educated person considers the diseases these animals carry, specifically Echinococcus granulosus, note that aside from a few people wearing rubber gloves, very little care is taken to prevent the spread of potentially hazardous tapeworm eggs. I.E. the animal was examined in the mouth, on site, without gloves; lifting the animal and making contact with regular clothing; placing of the carcass into a plastic bag again taking little care; tossing into the back of a vehicle presumably used everyday by government officials; and even once to the laboratory, little care is taken.

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Dr. David Mech “Creates” Wolf-Coyote Hybrid

This is classic isn’t it? Researchers, including the famous Dr. David Mech, modeler of the mythical “balance of nature,” say they have successfully crossed a wolf with a coyote – in captivity of course. Profound? Not really in that researchers announce a few years ago that wolves and coyotes and coy-dogs and domestic dogs and feral dogs were all interbreeding and blanketing much of the Eastern U.S.

According to the Field and Stream article, Mech says:

Our findings leave the eastern wolf debate open by adding further merit to the hybrid theory rather than disproving it.

There was some debate recently on this website with readers about Dr. Mech and his seemingly impeccable timing when it came to certain milestones in wolf research and major events affecting the animal. As an example was his “balance of nature” theory just about the time discussions were ongoing about whether wolves should be (re)introduced into Yellowstone and Central Idaho. Once wolves were dumped there, the balance of nature theory was found, by Mech, to be invalid. Convenient?

And now, he is announcing that the “theory” of hybridization of wild canines has been bolstered because a lab wolf and a lab coyote have been artificially bred to produce a hybrid. And all this happening at a time when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service wants to delist the gray wolf in all of the Lower 48 but are considering creating a new subspecies of wolf they can list to protect under the ESA.

So the question for all of us should be, “What is Mech up to, why and for whom?”

Please see my Featured Article of yesterday about the topic of hybridization of wolves and other species and how this plays into the administration of the Endangered Species Act.

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ESA and Hybridization: Dealing With It Case By Case

hybridwolfThe issue of wolves, the Endangered Species Act and “intercrosses”, i.e. cross breeding or hybridization, seems to have moved to the forefront in discussions about wolves. Before even getting to any discussion about what constitutes a hybridized wolf and how this is dealt with in the administering of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), consider some of the fallout and collateral damage protecting “intercrosses” can result in.

First, and probably foremost is the issue of actually protecting the purity of a species. As much as some have little or no use for the wolf, in parts of the world I believe a “pure” wolf and certain “pure” subspecies of wolves can be found (although I, personally, place little value in the notion of subspecies as it pertains to wild dogs). Is it therefore of importance to protect that species? Surely, although I recognize some might disagree. And also, to what degree and worthy effort is this protection to be carried out before it blows back in our faces as promoting further destruction of a species?

The question then becomes how do we protect a “pure” wolf species? Short of creating as much isolation from all other canines, wild and domestic, I’m not so inclined to think it honestly can be completely protected, at least not in some geographical locals, and that’s part of the problem that exists today. Attempting to force wild, and “pure,” wolves into heavily populated regions aren’t we begging for hybridization between wolves and feral and domestic dogs?

Secondly, we have learned that canines carry and transmit as many as 50 or more different kinds of diseases. In understanding the habits of wolves, we know that wolves travel great distances, sometimes extraordinary distances. With wolf populations being allowed to flourish, does this not force more wolves to disperse? Is not this flourishing also creating a situation in which wolves will find need to eat livestock, pets and basically hang out in people’s back yards? Isn’t this dispersal creating a better chance of perpetuating no fewer than two conditions: spreading of diseases into greater geographical regions and increasing the chances of “intercrosses?

Third, what then is becoming of the very institution of wildlife science and scholarship where it is known that protected species are interbreeding with other non protected species, and willingly this institution watches as the very species they claim to want to protect is being destroyed?

Fourth, of what value then, can be placed on the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (with amendments)? It’s no secret what the purposes and plans of the ESA are:

(b) PURPOSES.—The purposes of this Act are to provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved, to provide a program for the conservation of such endangered species and threatened species, and to take such steps as may be appropriate to achieve the purposes of the treaties and conventions set forth in subsection (a) of this section.

Is there mention here of protecting hybridized species? As a matter of fact there is no discussion or regulations in the ESA having anything to do with “intercrosses” of wolves. So, how do we stop this, or do we?

In email conversations over the past several days, I read comments from others far more expertise in these affairs than I am, repeating that the ESA does not protect mongrel species. I wanted to know where in the ESA it says that or by which Section of the Act one can interpret that is what it means?

Thanks to the help of Ted B. Lyon of Ted B. Lyon & Associates, P.C., and co-author of the brand new book, The Real Wolf: The Science, Politics, and Economics of Co-Existing with Wolves in Modern Times, I got some help. With the help of a law student at Indiana University Maurer School of Law, I was directed to some cases in law where it gives us perhaps a bit better understanding of how the courts, in conjunction with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, define and interpret “pure” species compared with “intercrosses” and how it is being dealt with.

As was given to me, here is a statement found in The Endangered Species Act: Static Law Meets Dynamic World by Holly Doremus

“The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (“FWS”) and National Marine Fisheries Service (“NMFS,” also known as NOAA Fisheries) (together “the Services”), do not currently have a formal policy on hybrids. The Interior Solicitor’s office waffled in the early days of the ESA, first concluding that any progeny of a protected entity was itself protected, then quickly reversing course to say that the progeny of interbreeding between species or even between subspecies were flatly ineligible for federal protection [70]. That stance was withdrawn as too “rigid” in 1990 [71]. A new policy was proposed in 1996 [72], but it was never finalized. FWS now evaluates the legal consequences of hybridization on a case-by-case basis [73].”

The short of all of this appears to be that the Endangered Species Act was not drafted with the intent to protect hybridized (intercrossed) species, BUT the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service “evaluates the legal consequences of hybridization on a case-by-case basis” because they granted themselves that authority to do so. And, we are squarely back to ground zero; the courts show deference to the Secretary and Congress gives the Secretary authoritative flexibility.

What does that then mean? That’s a good question. To me it means that if the USFWS has an agenda, aside from it’s written mission (Gasp!), and for political reasons, it can, on a case-by-case basis do whatever they want while running the risk of lawsuits from friends, what then is the rule of law worth? Realistically, the only lawsuits USFWS usually face come from animal rights and environmental groups. All too often, all of these groups work in unison with the same political (and financial) agendas.

In The Real Wolf book, an entire chapter covers the hybridization of captive wolves before and after Mexican wolves were introduced into the Southwest. This must be one of those case-by-case examples the USFWS says they will make determinations about. The information and facts presented are a clear and well-defined example of the United States Government spending millions of taxpayer dollars to protect a Heinz-57 mutt in the desert Southwest.

From my vantage point I see at least two seriously flawed examples here of what is wrong with the Endangered Species Act. One, that the Secretary has the authority, and that authority flexes its muscle knowing the Courts grant deference (and environmentalists, et. al., can cherry-pick the courts they want for the judges they will get). Secondly, the Secretary can bastardize the actual purpose of the ESA by playing games with intercrosses on a “case-by-case basis,” i.e. politics and agendas.

But the flaws date back to the very beginning of the ESA. With little or no definitions, establishment of actual authority and provisions to easily craft changes to the act based on the rapidly changing environments we live in, we can only expect the ESA to fail in protecting species and become a political tool of benefit for those who can see financial gains and abuse to promote causes. Can you say OUTDATED? I know you can.

Wolves were and never have been threatened “throughout a significant portion of its range.” Wolves and human populations cannot coexist. This has been proven over and over again. In addition to the threats these animals cause to humans, intercrosses are inevitable and are a threat to the protection of the pure wolf species. Why is that not being considered here? Or is it really NOT about the wolf?

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Study Shows Coyotes Kill Moose

coyoteattackonbuck - CopyThis study should blow a bunch of cold air up the shorts of wild dog protectors who are ignorant enough to say that coyotes don’t even bother deer. This new study shows that eastern coyotes and coyote/wolf hybrids found in Eastern Canada and Northern New England efficiently bring down adult moose, some weighing in excess of 400 pounds. In one instance just 2 coyotes brought down a 440-pound adult female moose.

Find the report here.

Here’s the Abstract of the study.

It has been widely assumed that coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) are incapable of killing adult moose (Alces alces (L., 1758)) and previous studies of coyote predation support this assumption. However, eastern coyotes and eastern coyote × eastern wolf (Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775) are larger than western coyotes and appear to rely on larger prey in some areas. We used a combination of GPS telemetry, genetic analysis, and field investigation to test the hypothesis that eastern coyotes and coyote × wolf hybrids are capable of preying on adult moose in central Ontario. Our hypothesis was supported, as we documented four definitive cases of eastern coyotes and (or) eastern coyote × eastern wolf hybrids killing moose ?1.5 years old. Predation by coyotes and coyote × wolf hybrids probably does not represent a threat to moose population viability in central Ontario, but our results suggest that researchers and managers in other areas with declining moose populations that are sympatric with eastern coyotes and (or) coyote × wolf hybrids should consider coyote predation as a potential source of mortality.

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