September 22, 2019

60,000 Antelopes Died in 4 Days — And No One Knows Why

But within four days, the entire herd — 60,000 saiga — had died. As veterinarians and conservationists tried to stem the die-off, they also got word of similar population crashes in other herds across Kazakhstan. By early June, the mass dying was over. [See Images of the Saiga Mass Die-Off]Now, the researchers have found clues as to how more than half of the country’s herd, counted at 257,000 as of 2014, died so rapidly. Bacteria clearly played a role in the saigas’ demise. But exactly how these normally harmless microbes could take such a toll is still a mystery

Source: 60,000 Antelopes Died in 4 Days — And No One Knows Why

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Wolves Attack Humans

As reported by “Caravan” resident of the village, Tamara B., mechanic farm them. Krupskaya Nikolay Mihaylov came out of the barn, when suddenly he jumped behind the animal. The man began to fight back and at first thought it was a dog.<<<Read More Google Translation>>>

In another incident:

“I got up at 8 o’clock in the morning, went into the yard, and this time attacked me from behind the beast fangs dug in right lower leg. I began to beat him with their fists on the head, and he did not once, but escaped. I thought it was a dog, but then I learned that it was a wolf. Limped to the hospital, where I sewed the wound did rabies vaccine. Limp still, “- says Zhumabergen.

Later, at three o’clock, the predator attacked Aldashov Isayev. Wolf threw 89-year veteran of the war in the yard of his house and bitten.

On the same day predator pulled four sheep in the yard Birjan Fazylova.<<<Read More Google Translation>>>

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Wolf Attacks Retired Kazakh Police Officer

wolfviciousTo some living in denial, wolves don’t attack people, unless of course they have contracted rabies…..from man non doubt. However, this story, which must not be true to those in denial, tells of a retired policeman living in Kazakhstan who was attacked from behind by a wolf while the man was looking over his car. He eventually fought off the wolf with his bear hands and strangled the animal; something Dr. Valerius Geist has always reported that could be done by a strong enough person.

I would like to draw readers attention to another report from the BBC of this same incident. I suppose searching for an explanation, the author writes:

Elders are surprised at the attack on a human, but recall that local huntsman Aldaberdy Akshabayev has stopped his regular wolf culls since the council cut off funding. Mangistau region police warn that the wolves are now becoming bolder as they compete for food.

Bingo! Too many wolves. Not enough food. Trouble! Read about this in Dr. Geist’s seven steps before wolves will attack a human.

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Study Shows E.G. Eggs That Cause Human Hydatidosis Readily Found in E.G. Endemic Soil

SHORT REPORT: THE USE OF A POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION TO DETECT ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS (G1 STRAIN) EGGS IN SOIL SAMPLES

B. S. SHAIKENOV, A. T. RYSMUKHAMBETOVA, B. MASSENOV, P. DEPLAZES, A. MATHIS, AND P. R. TORGERSON
Institute of Parasitology, University of Zu?rich, Zu?rich, Switzerland; Institute of Zoology, Kazakh Academy of Sciences, Academogorodok, Almaty, Kazakhstan

Abstract.

Cystic echinococcosis is a re-emerging disease in central Asia. A total of 120 soil samples taken from 30
gardens of rural homesteads in southern Kazakhstan were analyzed for the presence of taeniid eggs using a concentration technique. Of these, 21 (17.5%) were shown to be contaminated with taeniid eggs. These isolated taeniid eggs were further analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction specific for the G1 (sheep) strain of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, and five samples were shown to be positive. This study demonstrates the widespread contamination of the environment with E. granulosus eggs in an Echinococcus
-endemic area and thus the potential for indirect transmission of E. granulosus to humans from such sources.

<<<Read More>>>

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Hydatid Disease: Man Has Gotten This Disease Since the Domestication of Dogs

Recently, Prof. Dr. P. R. Torgerson, PhD, VetMB, DipECVPH, Professor of Veterinary Epidemiology Vetsuisse Faculty, published an article titled, “Frequency Distributions of Helminths of Wolves in Kazakhstan.”

The Summary reads as follows:

Summary of “Frequency distributions of helminths of wolves in Kazakhstan.”

Between 2001 and 2008 a total of 41 wolves (Canis lupus) were necropsied in southern Kazakhstan and their intestinal parasite fauna evaluated. Of these animals 8 (19.5%) were infected with Echinococcus granulosus, 15 (36%) with Taenia spp, 13 (31.7%) with Dypilidium caninum, 5 (12.2%) with Mesocestoides lineatus, 15 (36.6%) with Toxocara canis, 16 (39%) with Toxascaris leonina, 8 (19.5%) with Trichuris vulpis, 9 (22%) with Macracanthorhynchus catulinus and 1 (2.4%) with Moniliformis moniliformis. All parasites had an aggregated distribution which followed a zero inflated or hurdle model. Although a small convenience sample of wolves, the results indicate a high prevalence of infection with E. granulosus. The mean abundance (1275 E. granulosus per wolf) was high with individual infected wolves carrying intensities of several thousand parasites. As wolves are common in Kazakhstan they may act as an important host in the transmission of this zoonotic parasite. The wolves were sampled from an area of Kazakhstan where there is a high prevalence of hydatid cysts in livestock and where echinococcosis has been observed in wild ungulates.

Affiliation

Kazakh State Veterinary Research Institute, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Veterinary parasitology
ISSN: 1873-2550
Pages: 348-51
Links

PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21962968
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.09.004

Will Graves, author of “Wolves in Russia: Anxiety Through the Ages” and co-author of a new book soon to be released about wolves in the United States, having read Dr. Torgerson’s article, sent him an email seeking more information.

He wrote:

I am not a biologist but would like to exchange ideas with you about wolves. I am interested in Echinococcus granulosus and Neospora caninum.

Dr. Togerson replied to Will Graves, Torgerson says:

Dear Mr Graves
Thank you for your interest in our article. However I know little about wolves, other than there are lots of them in Kazakhstan. The primary interest was really in the parasites – especially Echinococcus granulosus. E. granulosus is a very serious zoonosis and in rural areas of Kazakhstan infects about 20% of dogs. It then transmits to people through close contact with dogs causing hydatid disease which is a large cystic lesion in your liver of lungs. The parasite naturally circulates between sheep and dogs. However the parasite almost certainly originated in wild life, probably circulating between wolves and wild ungulates. Man has been getting this disease ever since dogs were domesticated. I work with several scientists in Kazakhstan and the material for the manuscript was supplied by local hunters. In many areas wolves are considered a pest and a danger to livestock, especially as there are so many in Kazakhstan. (emboldening added)

Scientists that have knowledge of Echinococcus granulosus, i.e. Dr. Delane Kritsky, Dr. Valerius Geist, among others, have been trying to educate the public about where the real risk to humans comes from contracting human hydatid disease. Here we have Dr. Torgerson, in a region of the world where historically wolves have always been present, telling us that, “Man has been getting this disease ever since dogs were domesticated.”

The threat comes from free ranging dogs in rural settings that come in contact with the E.G. eggs through multiple sources. The dogs bring those eggs home with them running the risk of humans ingesting the tiny eggs.

But there exist some alarming figures that need to be shared. Dr. Torgerson says that of the 41 wolves he tested, 19.5%, or 8 of the wolves, tested positive for Echinococcus granulosus. As a result, Dr. Torgerson says that about 20% of domestic dogs become infected. Those numbers are startling enough. However, consider these numbers from Idaho.

According to Steve Alder of Idaho for Wildlife, in a recent email sent out, nearly 100% of recent necropsied wolves were infected with Echinococcus granulosus. If nearly 20% of infected wolf populations in Kazakhstan translates into about 20% of infected domestic dogs, what does this mean for Idaho?

This is a difficult thing to determine as certainly we don’t know the similarities in geography and population demographics of wolves and humans between Idaho and Kazakhstan. Nor do we know what kind of veterinary care exists between the two populations.

It is often said in this country that Echinococcus granulosus has never been a problem. That may be true but does the United States, particularly the lower 48 states, where denser human populations are exposed to wolf populations, have any real history of wolves and humans sharing the landscape?

This is why information that comes to us from areas around the world where that history is long can be helpful to us…..if only we would listen closely and learn. Dr. Torgerson says that hydatid disease in humans has existed since the domestication of dogs and yet people in this country refuse to except that fact, even though there now are thousands of wolves roaming the forests in parts of this nation.

The sooner doctors, scientists and canine lovers recognize this disease, along with many others carried by the wolf, the sooner we can all learn how best to protect ourselves, our children, pets and livestock. What’s wrong with that?

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