September 18, 2019

Tiny Increments on Educating People About Echinococcus Granulosus in Maine

On February 20, 2013, I posted a press release sent out by the Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife (MDIFW) about the discovery of echinococcus granulosus (E.G.) cysts found in moose. You can read that press release by clicking this link.

In addition to posting the press release, I also offered information about the disease to help readers obtain more knowledge and a better understanding of the real threats from this disease, frankly because I didn’t think the MDIFW press release contained enough information to help people make an honest assessment of the risks, which should become part of their decision making on outdoor excursions as well as proper care and prevention around the house.

With the help of a reader in finding it, the MDIFW posted some information on their website about E.G. While still inadequate, a small increment of changes were added to the original press release so positive actions are taking place.

To help readers better understand these tiny changes, I have posted the same information as can be found on the MDIFW website but took the liberty to highlight a few things there were added or omitted.

Echinococcus granulosus in Maine Moose

Over the last three years Inland Fisheries and Wildlife has been collaborating with the University of Maine Animal Health Lab in examining the presence of lungworms (Dictyocaulus spp.) in moose. Lungworms have been noted in moose that have been found dead in late winter with heavy winter tick loads and the combination of both parasites has been implicated as a cause of calf mortality.

This past fall, students once again increased sampling intensity of moose lungs from harvested animals. This led to the University of Maine-Animal Health Lab, finding Echinococcus granulosus (E.G.) cysts in some moose lungs. EG is a very small tapeworm that has a two part lifecycle; one in canids (coyotes/foxes/domestic dogs) and the second in moose. There are several known genotypes of this tapeworm, and genetic testing of the Maine tapeworms found that this EG is the northern, or least pathogenic, form. Although Echinococcus granulosus can infect humans, the form that is known to do so most often is the sheep-dog genotype. Finding the northern, wild-type form of EG in moose in Maine suggests that likely wild canids in Maine are infected and that possibly domestic dogs are infected as well, and that fact may allow for human exposure to this parasite. It is also very likely that we have coexisted with these tapeworms for years with no apparent problems having not actively looked for them prior to this work.

The adult tapeworm lives in the intestines of the canid host, while the larval form lives in the lungs or liver of an infected moose. Humans may become infected by [original press release included the word ‘ingesting’] eggs of the parasite, which can be picked up by contact with canid feces.

In conjunction with the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention and University of Maine Animal Health Lab/Cooperative extension, we recommend [original release used ‘the Department’] the following:

* Hunters avoid harvesting sick or injured animals. [This was added]
* Hunters and trappers should always wear rubber or latex gloves when field dressing animals.
* Wild game meat should be thoroughly cooked.
* People should avoid contact with dead wild animals
* People should avoid contact with carnivore feces [This was added]
* After consultation with your veterinarian, regularly deworm pets with a product that works on tapeworms [what is emboldened was added]
* Do not let domestic pets eat the organs from either hunter-harvested animals or from “road kill” animals [This entire warning was added]
* Practice good personal hygiene-wash hands and contaminated clothes, especially after handling animals or anything that could be contaminated with feces [entire warning was added]

On a positive note, it appears that the MDIFW is getting better educated about E.G. I will continue to send them information in hopes they are willing to gain better understanding and knowledge.

What hasn’t been brought out in either the original press release or this information posted on MDIFW’s website, is that if moose have these E.G. cysts, more than likely the whitetail deer, if they don’t have them now, soon will. As a matter of fact all ungulates are susceptible to E.G. This includes both wild and domestic ungulates.

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Hydatid Cyst Transmission and Growth

Hydatid Cyst Transmission and Growth
February 22, 2013
Author: Clayton H. Dethlefsen
Chairman and Executive Director
Western Predator Control Association

ISSUE: Can Hydatid Cysts cause the development of Hydatid Disease without the Transmission of E.g. Tapeworm Eggs through their expulsion in the fecal discharge of Canines?
 
DISCUSSION:

Key Point: Transmission from Hydatid Cysts that directly creates a new Cyst happens.  The only question is how this happens.
 
Ungulates with multiple Cyst including humans generally get them when Cyst that they already have burst or seep causing the Protoscolices (Hydatid Sand and/or the Cyst Fluid) to migrate to new location within the body.  Mostly these new cysts grow within the same body cavity or the same or immediately adjacent vital organs.

Hydatid Fluid contains tapeworm larva that have heads with connected tails that look much the same as swimming frog pollywogs. This fluid is often referred to as Hydatid Sand, which, if it gets into the circulation or respiratory system, can flow its way to new ungulate body locations.  Also, new cyst can form, if the initial Cyst was in the eye, in the eye socket, and if the initial Cyst was in bone marrow, new Cysts (because of the bone’s structure) are habitually confined to the bone’s cavity. Also, Cysts form in the tracheal and bronchial tubes, particularly where the Trachea branches into the Bronchi, or at a subcutaneous location if Sand from a burst or leaking cyst moves to these locations.
 
A good number of multiple cysts have developed from leakage of cystic fluid during surgical procedures including Puncture, Aspiration, Irrigation and Reaspiration (PAIR) and/or biopsy procedures used to determine if in fact a cyst is an Echinococcus granulosus (E.g.) product.  Most medical research on children and operations on these patients have been done in their brain cavity where PAIR and biopsy processes are extremely restricted. When secondary Cysts do form adjacent to vital organs or in adjacent brain locations, including those that form post operation, they cause a resurgence of nearly identical patient symptoms and problems. However, if the Sand migrates to other body locations the symptoms are usually somewhat different, as is their medical impact.

(Keep in mind that symptoms of Hydatid Cyst involvement are numerous, dependent on their location, and are similar to other vital organ maladies and/or infections such as tumors or bacterial infections which cause physical pressure increases and/or the destruction/decaying of organ tissue in circulation, respirations, digestion, etc. systems.)
 
The question of whether a person can get a cyst or cysts from puncturing them while field dressing game or butchering domestic animals comes up frequently.  In considering this we have to understand that viable (infectious) Hydatid Sand must get directly into a susceptible body cavity and/or vital organ, and the environment surrounding a cyst’s growth must nearly approximate the hermetically sealed or the surgical environment that is inherent with the formation of a new cyst, or a secondary cyst from an original leaking or bursting cyst.
 
We have positive medical records with photographs that show cysts occurring in human eyes, bone marrow and from external injection in subcutaneous tissue. We also know that cysts form internally in the vital organs and at the juncture of the trachea and bronchial transition. The cysts that occur at these non-normal locations form as a result of unusual circumstances, which generally do not include free movement of E.g. Eggs or Hydatid Sand through the normal process, i.e. the ungulate’s circulation system.
 
In the cases of Eye Cysts, Trachea and Bronchial Cysts and Subcutaneous Cysts, Cyst formation, normal and non-normal, has had only limited medical evaluation; therefore, no absolutely definitive formation-origin or cause has been confirmed. But several doctors and/or medical researchers believe that it is feasible that cysts in these locations can and do start with the direct-to-the-site, as opposed to by the normal circulatory system, introduction of E. g Eggs and/or Hydatid Sand from external sources and by external means.
 
The circulation system in the eye cavity where eye-cyst growth starts is primarily at the end of the circulation system, where very tiny capillaries distribute blood, and where the eye socket is warm and well lubricated. This fact and the fact that normal cyst formation is nearly always in the nearest and most easily accessible vital organ (fed by large veins and arteries) makes it highly improbable that eye cysts, for example, would be sourced through the ungulates digestive system with subsequent movement by blood-flow through capillaries. It is therefore more possible that initial and secondary eye cysts, as well as, subcutaneous, some bone marrow (reference broken bones) and bronchial and trachea cysts can and do occur as a result of more direct contact with and movement by outside physical transmission means.
 
Further, the normal development and passage of E.g. eggs (at this point they have developed into oncospheres) directs that they in sequence attach/seat themselves in major vital organs such as Liver, Kidney, Lungs and Heart, and as often in the case of children in the child’s Brain, and not further down the very constricted recesses of the circulation corridor. It is therefore most reasonable to conclude that cysts in the eye socket, bone marrow, and in subcutaneous tissue, as well as at the junction of the trachea and bronchi come by way of other transmission means.
 
From confirming medical data, specifically patient records and medical research, we find, conclusively, that cysts can develop and have developed from seeping or burst cysts, particularly when multiple cysts are found, and specifically without the introduction of new E.g. eggs (oncospheres). What is not clear, particularly with cyst that form from surgical procedures (where the body cavity is open to an external atmosphere) is how long Hydatid Sand will maintain a viable-infectious protoscolices loading or allow secondary cysts to grow after the patient’s surgery has concluded and the patient’s surgical site is closed.
 
During surgical procedures (a very sterile process in a maintained-sterile external environment) it is confirmed that Sand/Protoscolices exposure, because of the normal length of a surgical procedure, has been and is many hours. Hence it is reasonable and logical to conclude that (in the near-term) time of exposure of Hydatid Sand to an external environment seems to have little degradation or death effect which would prevent the formation of secondary cysts from Hydatid Sand.
 
Taking all this factually based information and using the “Reasonable Person” method of assessment, it is logical to assert that both primary and secondary Hydatid Cysts can form in ungulates if Hydatid Fluid flows, is inhaled/ingested or is injected from an external source (Elk, Deer, domestic sheep, cattle, etc.) into a human. Of course this Hydatid Fluid needs to move into open human and other ungulate orifices (mouths, bleeding cuts, nose, eye sockets, etc.) from where Hydatid fluid movement continues into susceptible body nodes through normal respiratory and/or bodily flow processes. Although rare, this action can and does happen.

It has been medically determined and medically reported that cysts can form in the respiratory system at and near the junction of the trachea and bronchial connection, in subcutaneous tissue through injection and direct contact with an open wound, and in a very wetted eye cavity. It is also a medical fact the E.g. eggs and subsequently oncospheres survive the passage through the hostile digestive environment in ungulates and that scolices/protoscolices are unharmed in the hostile canine and human digestive, circulatory, respiratory systems. If these conclusions were not factual the E.g. life cycle would have terminated centuries ago.
 
It has also been established that human hands, insects such as coprophagic flies and wasps, and wind are transporters of E.g. eggs from one point to another, and that ingestion, injection and inhalation are all primary means by which E.g. is transmitted. Thus, open access to Hydatid Sand with viable protoscolices from a burst or seeping cyst can also be transmitted by these means, and can henceforth be inhaled, ingested and/or injected into an ungulate with the result being the formation of new and/or secondary Hydatid Cyst.

CONCLUSION:

Fact–Humans get secondary Hydatid Cyst from internally located bursting and/or seeping Cysts.

Too, in the case of humans (hunters, butchers, etc.) it is not only feasible but it is truly possible for people to get Hydatid Cysts from an ungulate’s exposed Hydatid Cysts. This occurs when Hydatid Sand from a Cyst that has burst and/or is seeping comes into contacted with a human’s transmission means, and thereafter, this Hydatid Cyst Fluid (with viable Protoscolices) enters external body orifices. Transmission by hands or by having Sand surge or gush in some other manner into external orifices of the body are such means; hence, Cysts do not occur just from direct involvement with E.g. Eggs.

*Editor’s Note* – I presented this article to Dr. Delane Kritsky, noted parasitologist from Idaho State University. In particular I wanted clarification, once again, that hunters and trappers are not in danger of contracting hydatid disease simply by handling game animals that may have hydatid cysts. Here is Dr. Kritsky’s response:

Tom: It is true that if a cyst is ruptured within your body, it will result in new cysts developing. In addition, it is possible to inject material from a cyst from one host into a new host which will result in development of a cyst (or cysts) in the new host (This is often done to maintain E. granulosus and E. multilocularis in laboratory animals); injection is usually within the body cavity; this is one of the dangers associated with surgical removal of cysts — rupture and the release of the hydatid sand into the body cavity during surgery could result in new cyst development in the patient. However, there is no danger in becoming infected just by handling (or eating) a cyst that might have been present in a harvested animal. delane

 

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Human Hydatid Disease: A Warning to Trappers and Hunters

HYDATID DISEASE
(Echinococcosis)
By Dave Miller

The disease is the result of an infection caused by tapeworms of the family Taenidae. Of importance, is that the dormancy of this can be up to 50 years. It was previously most common in South & Central America, Middle East, China, and Western North America.

It has now arrived in the Northeast.

This is of equal importance to trappers and hunters alike in Maine and the rest of the Northeast.
Although, some of us in the trapping community have been aware of the disease for a number of years and I was planning to write an article on it eventually, I have moved up its importance. This is based on the fact that IF&W has done research on it and just made the fact that is here public. Some of us assumed it would get here in the near future, but was not aware it had already actually arrived. IF&W presented it publically during Lee Kantar’s recent February presentation of his annual report on moose and deer to the legislature’s IFW Committee. I think trappers along with hunters should have been made aware of it immediately upon its discovery in Maine, considering our possible expose to it.

There are three different forms of echinococcosis found in humans, each of which is caused by the larval stages of different species of the tape worm genus Echinococcus. They are cyctic echinococcosis (the most common), alveolar echinococcosis and the third is polycystic echinococcosis. We are concerned with the first one here caused by echinococcus granulsus.

The first article I have in reference to the disease is part of an Outdoorsman article published about 40 years ago. At that time most readers of the Outdoorsman were from Northwestern Canada and Alaska where the cysts were present in moose and caribou. That article included statistics on the number of reported human deaths resulting from the cysts over a 50 year period. It also addressed the decline in deaths, once outdoorsmen learned what precautions were needed to prevent humans from infection.

It has been reported that in Alaska alone, over 300 cases have been reported in humans since 1950 as a result of canines (primarily wolves) contaminating the landscape with billions of the worm eggs in their scat (feces). The invisible eggs are ingested by wild and domestic animals, and sometimes by humans. It is made airborne by kicking the scat or picking it up to see what the animal has been eating. It can also be spread by wind over large areas. The eggs are very hardy and survive through extreme temperatures and weather for very long periods. The egg hatches in the digestive system of the intermediate host, producing larva.

Once ingested this larvae develops from the egg stage, penetrates the intestinal walls, and moves into the capillary beds (liver, lungs & brain) where they develop into large cysts full of tiny tapeworm heads. It settles there and turns into a bladder-like structure called a hydatid cyst. The cysts eventually kill the infected animals (humans) unless diagnosed and removed surgically. After the death of the intermediate host, its body (animals) is consumed by carnivores suitable as its final host. In their intestines, the protoscolices (the inner layer of the cyst wall that buds and protrudes into the fluid sac) turns inside out, attach and give rise to adult tapeworms, completing its life cycle.

It is important that outdoorsmen (hunters & trappers in particular) know not to kick or touch the scat of canids. Also, the wearing of rubber gloves when field dressing game and/or while fur handling is of upmost importance to prevent infection from the blood and/or internal organs. It must be noted that the tapeworm affects many other mammals from your dog and horse to rodents. For those collecting and using the anis glands for scent making – be forewarned of the direct contact with the scat.

The announcement of a tiny tape worm who’s name most of us can’t pronounce, that had never been reported south of the U.S. and Canadian border is now infecting elk, deer, moose, and even humans is being rapidly spread cross thousands of square miles. It is believed this has resulted from the introduction of the Gray Wolf to our western mountains. The tape worm has been reported in elk, deer, and mountain goats over large areas out west.

Even Sweden and Finland have reported the westerly spread of the disease into their moose herds from from Russian wolves. The Russian wolf population is currently increasing dramatically to the point they are hiring hunters/trappers to reduce the wolf population.

There were plenty of warnings about the spread of this disease by experts. Despite this, various FWS and State Wildlife Departments ignored their warnings. A certain FWS biologist (I have a document that names him – but I won’t here) who was stationed in Alaska and was knowledgeable about the disease was assigned to head up the Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery Team. He chose not to address or evaluate the impact of wolf recovery on diseases and parasites in the 1993 Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) provided to the public.

This resulted in alarming a number of experts on pathogens and parasites. One individual (Will Graves) informed the FWS biologist with information including that in Russia wolves carried 50 types of worms & parasites, including Echinococcosis and others with various degrees of danger to both animals and humans. In Graves written testimony in 1993 to the FWS biologist he also cited the results of a 10 year Russia study in which a failure to kill most wolves by each spring resulted in up to 100% parasite infection rate of moose and wild boar with an infection incident of up to 30-40 per animal. Graves’s letter stated that despite the existence of foxes, raccoons and domestic dogs; wolves were always the basic/primary source of parasite infections in the moose and wild boar. He emphasized the toll it could take on domestic livestock, and along with other expert respondents, requested a detailed study on the potential impact wolves would have in regard to carrying, harboring and spreading disease.

In the final 414 page Gray Wolf EIS (FEIS) dated April 14, 1994 only one third of a page addressed Disease and Parasites to & from Wolves (chapter 5 page 55). It stated that “Most respondents who commented on this issue expressed concern about diseases and parasites introduced wolves could transfer to other animals in recovery areas”. Several other statements by the FWS biologist are as simplistic and ignored specific concerns. The FWS implied that Graves “facts” are only his opinion.

Several “other previously unrecognized parasites” in the states where wolves have been introduced have also been found. So our coyotes may well be bringing in new diseases into Maine and the Northeast region.

cyst

lungs1
Cysts found in the lungs of an elk

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Tailoring Wolf “Science” to Justisfy Political Ends

By Jim Beers

Friday, January 18, 2013 at 10:58pm ·

Federal government wolf intervention in the Lower 48 United States was and is based on radical federal legislation that abolished historic State authority over all wolves, all grizzly bears and many state black bear populations such as Florida and Louisiana. This 30+ year intervention has established extensive wolf populations in 14 States and begun establishment of wolves through federal protection for wolves in 11 more States. Under current law, wolves can be expected to infest (the correct word) each of the Lower 48 United States in the coming decades. Also under current law, federal legal authority and jurisdiction over wolves (like grizzly bears and black bears in certain states) will never expire: one need only observe how as the federal government “returns management authority” to States like Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, Minnesota, Wisconsin, et al lawsuits to block such returns bloom in federal courts and federal agency wolf standards (10 packs, 500 wolves, whatever) prevent State’s from truly managing wolves in densities and distributions as demanded by ranchers, farmers, dog owners, hunters, and rural families in such States or the federal government simply seizes the authority back, thereby letting the states carry the costs as they hold the federal bag.

The legal authority for this wolf invasion (again the correct word) is The Endangered Species Act. The two subjects of this Act (i.e. “Endangered” and “Species) no more apply to wolves in fact than they apply to Norway rats or domestic cows.

Wolves (like Norway rats) are circumpolar and ubiquitous throughout Asia, Alaska and most of Canada. Wolves also occur in Northern Africa and are currently infesting Europe under a protection and spreading regime imposed by European Union politicians and bureaucrats using tyrannical methods much like those employed in the United States. Labeling them as “Endangered” is a cruel and profane joke.

Wolves (like domestic cows) are merely one breed or race of a larger true “species”. Wolves, again like domestic cows, breed with and produce fertile offspring with coyotes, domestic dogs, jackals (Africa) and dingoes (Australia). Offspring of such cross-breeding, again like domestic cows, display characteristics of each parent and will transmit the blended characteristics (from physical characteristics to behavioral traits) to their subsequent offspring. To expand the classification biology of this animal to a “Species” as “Species” has been historically defined (i.e. a unique animal group capable of producing fertile offspring) or as “Species” was defined or intended in an ESA that would “save” bald eagles and elephants is a travesty.

To further, as has been done, “spin” traditional classification biology of wolves (“gray” ones here,” timber” ones there, “coastal” ones like this,” desert” ones like that, etc.) into “Red” populations, “Mexican” populations, etc. was little more than a ploy using contrived “science” to justify federal programs to forcibly introduce “endangered” wolf “species” in every state based on baseless “historic” wolf numbers and distributions. (NOTE: Although federal “wolf experts” say what wolf belongs where because it is “native” to that state: when it came time to put wolves in Yellowstone Park the “experts” went to Alberta and the Yukon for wolves. Evidently what is good for the goose –i.e. the states- is not necessarily good for the gander, i.e. the feds.) That paid “scientists” assert that once (100 years ago?, 250 years ago?, amidst an undeveloped land mass?, among primitive societies?) X numbers of wolves existed here and there and therefore must be “restored” elevates a travesty to high dudgeon. To further complicate this essentially straightforward circumpolar animal into artificial “subspecies”, “races”, and “breeds”; in order to “define “populations”; in order to invent population “segments”; so that you might claim something called a “DISTINCT” “population segment” in order to completely baffle the public and courts as you seize state authorities is on a par with French phrenology (skull measurements that reveal “smartness and criminal tendencies) and German Racial Classifications that define Slavs, Jews, Aryans, etc. That is to say complete bunk.

All that said, this is not about classification baloney, excuse me “science”. This is about Ebola and bats in Africa.

The November 2012 Smithsonian magazine has a fascinating article titled The Hunt for Ebola (in Uganda). Long story short: Ebola emerged in 1976 in Zaire in Central Africa. It is a highly contagious and lethal disease that has killed at least one thousand Africans since that time. Several outbreaks since then in Sudan and Uganda have enabled doctors from Europe and the US to work with local governments to develop protocols to contain outbreaks and spread of the disease but the source of the outbreaks has proven elusive. The US Centers for Disease Control has worked for years and spent millions to identify the source of the outbreaks.

What they found is that Ebola is a Virus that infects human cells. The Virus is widely distributed in Ethiopian epauletted fruit bats that often reside in African dwellings. These bats are referred to as “viral reservoirs” (passive carriers of pathogenic organisms that occasionally leap into human beings). The virus can be transmitted in bites or in urine or in feces or even in saliva. During the course of these ongoing investigations a similar deadly viral disease (called a “sister virus”), Marburg bleeding fever, that similarly resides in Egyptian fruit bats was investigated. Both diseases can be transmitted by bats to other animals (like monkeys) that are termed “amplification hosts” and that in turn can also infect humans by a wide variety of means down to simple contact with their infected tissue.

In summary, after years of research there is still no vaccine and the investigators have identified two species of bats as “viral reservoirs” repeatedly infecting humans that die from the disease, in as yet undetermined ways. The investigators express a concern that when they find “how” the virus is transmitted, “Some people here might say, ‘Let’s kill them all’ but that would be destroying a valuable ecological resource. Our aim is to mitigate the interaction”.

Wow, read that last sentence again. “Some people HERE”? Like wolves and their effects HERE in the Lower 48 States, these visitors, these folks from elsewhere, know what’s best for the people “HERE”. Frankly, if I were someone living with these bats; my home, my children’s play area and school, my workplace, and my wife’s home range would be and would remain bat-free henceforth regardless of their “valuable ecological resource” value to those living elsewhere.

Ah, but what about wolves? Wolves were eradicated (by those folks that lived “HERE” where wolves lived) for over 50 years from the Lower 48 States for very good reason. Small remnant populations and the occasional wandering wolf from Canada persisted with state acquiescence in northern States like Minnesota, Montana, Idaho and Washington. All of the wolves in the Lower 48 States today are federal wolves; introduced, protected, and spread by federal force. Thus we are neither remiss nor unfair to say that the federal government is RESPONSIBLE for what the wolves do.

The federal government is responsible for the cattle that wolves kill.

The federal government is responsible for the dogs that wolves kill.

The federal government is responsible for the loss of hunting opportunity, game animals and hunting revenue due to wolf predation on big game.

The federal government is responsible for any injuries or deaths caused by wolves.

The federal government is responsible for the increased dangers and loss of safety in rural living caused by wolves in yards or at school bus stops, etc.

The federal government is responsible for the economic losses in rural economies (animal husbandry cost increases, real estate losses due to safety concerns, etc. caused by wolves.

The federal government is responsible for the loss of freedom for rural children that can no longer camp, fish, hike, hunt, or even play with their dog alone where wolves are present.

Now the above are horrid effects of wolves that the federal government laughingly ignores because:

1. No one will or does hold them accountable. This is an extreme injustice in an increasingly unjust nation.

2. They are Political Ends that were intended all along. The bureaucrats, politicians and radicals responsible for this wolf travesty always desired and intended:

A. That hunting be eliminated.

B. That ranchers be run out of business.

C. That growing swaths of rural America come under federal ownership or easement control.

D. That Local Governments be eliminated.

E. That State governments and State bureaucrats become simple extensions (like contractors) of federal diktats.

F. That legal precedents be established for subsequent federal spread of harmful animals to expand federal land control as with free-roaming buffalo, grizzly bears, uncontrolled black bears and cougars, and even harmful exotic animals allowed to be legally imported by federal wildlife bureaucrats like pythons and Asian carp.

But there is one enormous effect of wolves that the federal government ignored and denies whenever it is mentioned. This effect has the potential to surpass all of the above combined. This effect is one that no one can explain because nothing is “proven” by the few “scientists” that might hazard an opinion. This effect requires scientific research (that should have been conducted before the first wolf was ever left out of its’ cage). This effect is the transmission and spread of deadly diseases and infections that affect humans, domestic animals, and other wildlife.

Consider, wolves:

– Host (in their bodies, on their fur, and in the ticks they carry) many diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and prions (deformed proteins) as well as tapeworms and their eggs.

– Eat and mouth guts, brains, bone marrow, organs, and body fluids of the domestic and wild animals they kill. Injured, sick, or dead animals or humans are also fair game and food when encountered by wolves.

– Visit human residences, towns, garbage areas, etc. as they utilize paths and roads of all sorts as they wander, especially at night.

– Leave saliva on things they pick up, sneeze, bleed, urinate, and leave feces in yards, by buildings, on paths and other areas frequented by dogs (leashed and unleashed), kids, and adults.

– When killing deer, elk or moose tend to frequent one such area after another as they pick up and carry diseases from one game area to another. The same applies to wolves killing domestic animals like cattle and sheep wherein pastures and like areas are frequented and any exposure to livestock diseases is carried to other livestock areas.

– Far more than any other wildlife from coyotes and bears to skunks and raccoons, travel over vast areas routinely as they forage for food. From one day to the next they can move miles unlike big game animals or other wildlife. Thus wolf exposure to diseases is far greater and the areas they might contaminate are vaster by far.

– Carry, sluff, and pick up a much greater number and diversity of ticks as they move about thereby increasing their exposure to tick-borne diseases and mixing tick populations and diseases to a greater degree.

– Like bats, move, sleep, and feed in groups such that what one is infected with, others likely pick up.

– Do not lend themselves to mandatory, quick, lethal controls in areas of disease outbreaks from rabies and foot-and-mouth to Mad cow and Brucellosis. While more local animals can be poisoned and shot to contain the spread of infections, a pack of wolves or a lone wolf moving through a pasture infected with anthrax or a deer winter yard infected with Chronic Wasting Disease at 2 in the morning and then four miles away by sunup is unlikely to be traced as the disease or infection is transmitted.

Here is a list of what unvaccinated dogs and wolves are known to carry and transmit. It is not as comprehensive as might be found in the research files (were they to exist) of honest researchers concerned about human health, human safety, livestock industry, hunting, game populations, dogs of all stripes, rural economies, rural families, private property, and limited government. Frankly, such “researchers do not currently exist.

1.PRION-CAUSED diseases carried by wolves, remembering that prions can exist for weeks on grass or on boots or on carpets or on fur or between toes as well as in bodies where they can re-infect other animals:

Mad Cow Disease

Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (the deadly human form of Mad Cow)

– Associated PRION-caused human diseases like Type II Diabetes, Artherosclerosis, Cataracts, Cystic Fibrosis, a type of Emphysema, Dementia, Alzheimers, and others.

Chronic Wasting Disease

2.BACTERIA-CAUSED diseases carried by wolves and/or the ticks they carry:

Bubonic Plague

Anthrax (A Bio Warfare agent)

Brucellosis

Undulant Fever (the human variant of Brucellosis and Bio Warfare agent)

Lyme Disease

Typhus

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Relapsing Fever

Erlichia

Anaplasmosis

Babesiosis

Tick Paralysis

Dermatosis

3.VIRAL-CAUSED diseases carried by wolves:

Foot (Hoof)-and-Mouth

Rabies (55K die annually from this worldwide)

Distemper

Parvo

Encephalitis

4.TAPEWORM DISEASES (deadly and debilitating) that wolves carry:

Echinococcus granulosis

Echinococcus multilocularis

Neospora caninum (causes abortions)

GID or Sturdy that infects brains

5.MITE-CAUSED diseases carried by wolves:

Three kinds of mange or scabies.

This short list, composed by a retired wildlife biologist, is certainly incomplete yet it contains 28 separate diseases and infections. Most of these affect humans and all can infect domestic dogs that; like work boots, dogs or other objects can bring Prions, Bacteria, and Viruses into homes where children will be exposed to infected carpets, dog tongues and other things, much like the mysterious ways that Africans “get” Ebola from bats. – Only there won’t be any US CDC spending millions to figure out where the infection came from or how the kid or grandma came down with it before dying.

Even if someone did figure it out, just like the Ebola researchers, the US investigators would think first of the “valuable ecological resource”, i.e. wolves and how to avoid any contact in the future. Only just like “Fladry”, “Noisemakers”, “recordings”, night watchmen, and moving the remaining people elsewhere by totally destroying their communities; nothing short of the way our wise forefathers “managed” wolves will ever work. They might even, out of respect for Gaia (the Nature God they are being taught to worship), ignore the evidence and look elsewhere (more career-compatible) for the source.

You see, wolf “science” was and is tailored to achieve political ends and Americans that get in the way are just as expendable as those Africans that have the misfortune to live where bats infected with Ebola call home!

Jim Beers

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Wolf Shot in New Brunswick, Canada Was a Wild Mixed Species

DNA testing has shown that a wolf killed nearly a year ago was a wild creature of mixed wolf species, i.e. grey and eastern. Officials assume the animal was wandering into New Brunswick from northern Quebec. Unfortunately a CBC News article states that the wolf had tapeworms.

“It had a few tape worms in it as well that indicate it had been feeding in the wild for a while, so it was in good shape.”

Very little being said and no way to know what kind of tapeworms, I’m not so sure I would be confessing that “it was in good shape.” Some kinds of tapeworms can be detrimental to wild ungulates, i.e. deer, moose, caribou, etc. and lethal to humans.

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